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submitted by IdolA29Augl to u/IdolA29Augl [link] [comments]


2020.08.20 20:41 Changeling_Wil Greeks are just Baltic people wearing funny hats

Greetings badhistory!
So, long story short I had been discussing hyperborea with a friend. As in 'the classical myth' not the neo-pagan/neo-nazi/neo-fascist insanity.
Afterwards I thought to myself 'I don't actually know that much about how much the ancient Greeks knew about the baltic, I should google it'.
First thing google brings me is a site going on about 'the baltic greeks exposed'. It was wild. Anyway, I think 'oh I could make a badhistory post about this' but now the site doesn't exist/when you try to access it it just wants you to buy the domain.
Thankfully wayback is here to help https://web.archive.org/web/20200305042946/http://siegekultur.biz/the-baltic-greek-expose/
So first things first: They have no footnotes or bibliography. This is a big yikes.
Before I properly start this groundbreaking work off, I should mention that, in order to fully understand it, you should at the very least have a basic understanding of Felice Vinci’s earth shattering book, “The Baltic Origins of Homer’s Epic Tales”.
Now, annoyingly I couldn't find any reviews of this over on jstor so I'm forced to look elsewhere for reviews of the work .http://www.paabo.ca/reviews/BalticHomericVinci.html
But from looking around it seems the work tends to cherry pick and focus on evidence that supports its theory instead of actually judging the evidence and details offered by the source material.
So that's a big yikes there.
Circa 1800 BC, a large group of people from the modern day Baltic Sea, namely the states of Lithuania and Latvia, formed a mighty civilization. While they often fought, their technological advances were amazing. Eventually, the Balts moved southward through the Dnieper river, for reasons unknown. Eventually, they reached the Black Sea and the Aegean sea, forming what would eventually become Greece. They conquered and subjugated the locals, hereafter referred to as ethnic Greeks, and imposed their history on them.
I...is this The Finno-Korean Hyperwar?
I'll admit I'm no scholar of the Baltic in the classical/ancient period but as far as I'm aware, there was no 'grand technologically advanced baltic state' there as much as the Waring baltic tribes with the germanic ones to the west of them? Feel free to correct me.
Also, 1800bc? As in the 18th century BC? Before the Greek Dark Ages and the Dorian invasions? Weird place to put your population movement theory. I'm not sure on the exacts but aren't the Ionians and Aeolians fully moved in by the 16th century BC? Or at least settled there before the Dorians later punt them about.
The stories of the Balts, hereafter referred to as Baltic Greeks, eventually became legend, and the Baltic Greek caste partially forgot their ways, and believed that the stories that had been passed down to them had taken place in the Mediterranean, when they had actually taken place in the Baltic Sea. An author, Homer, eventually wrote these down circa 800 BC, confusing ancient Baltic cities such as Troy for places in the mediterranean, and believing that great Baltic Kings like Agamemnon were Greek. This is where I depart from Felice Vinci. I know that the priest subcaste of the Baltic Greeks never truly forgot their ancestral home. The priests were the last to agree to leave the ancient Baltic land, and their undying dream was to see their new home, Greece, joined in a mighty empire stretching to their ancient home in the Baltics.
Dude. Duuude. Citations. Please.
Like...where are you getting this? At all? You had one (sketchy and not using evidence correctly) book to support your first bit. But where are you getting any evidence for 'they were the last to leave'.
The Baltic Greek priests knew that powerful secrets existed in ancient Hyperborea, which they believed could help them rule the known world. They believed that Hyperborea was located either in the Baltics, or very close by.
I...if they didn't forget their history and used to live there, surely they'd know if it was or wasn't in the baltic?
So, the priests had to bide their time. Decades turned to centuries, and the Baltic Greek priests were still plotting as to how they would regain the Baltics, when a potential puppet came to power in what was now called Macedonia, namely king Amyntas III, in 393 BC. [...]Amyntas III presented a rare opportunity for the Baltic Greek priests: he was a Baltic Greek nationalist, and a strong military leader. [...] they would wait until the time was right, and Amyntas would share the knowledge of the Baltic homeland with his sons. One of them, or one of their descendants, was to retake the Baltics whenever possible.
What can be presented without evidence can be dismissed without evidence.
This being said: No, Amyntas III was not a baltic-greek nationalist. Putting aside the issue of using the term nationalist for classical material...just no. The fuck.
Alexander was taught the Baltic Greek secrets as soon as he could talk, and he made their retaking his life’s goal. However, as Alexander and his father both grew older, they realized their problem: the other Greek states wished to invade Persia, and they would have never supported a seemingly haphazard expedition north, through completely uncharted territory. Alexander, Philip, and the priests were unwilling to tell the other major greek states about the ancient home in the Baltics, if they did, the ancillary Greek states may have attempted to get there first.
'The Greeks wouldn't want to march north if we didn't tell them because they want to invade rich Persia, if we told them they'd ignore persia and march into the frozen north on the off chance the land that clearly wasn't great because we moved from it exists'.
What.
Philip II and Alexander both knew that the earth was round, but were unaware of the circumference of the earth, and they did not know of the large bodies of water and other continents. So, their plan was this: they would form a league, known as the league of Corinth, which was made of many Greek States. They would declare war on the Persian Empire, and defeat them, and would continue with their conquests until they eventually circled around the earth and reached the Baltics.
'People don't want to march far from home into the great unknown. We'll make them march far from home into the great unknown'.
Poison was placed in Alexander’s wine, and he died after 10 days of agony. Alexander’s reported last words were that his empire should go “to the strongest”, but this is not true. His real last words certified that his unborn son should take the throne. The Generals knew that allowing another Baltic Greek from the bloodline of Alexander would be disastrous. So, they themselves took over various parts of Alexander’s empire, knowing that, as seperate states, it’d be harder for the Baltic Greeks to take over all of their land.
If Alexander was poisoned, had fever, drank too much etc is still disputed.
50 years after this, ethnic Greeks in Italy finalized their complete victory over the native Etruscans. They formed a mighty Republic, eventually an empire, that was by and large free of Baltic Greek taint.
I'm sorry when the fuck did Rome become Greek. Rome, the great Latin power. Did this guy just hear that Greeks lived in Magna Gracia and went ham? Are the baltic greeks meant to be the 'proud wise rulers' or an 'evil taint'? Is this fascist doublethink or not? I'm confused.
As you all know, their empire degenerated badly, and eventually a Baltic Greek was allowed to take control of the Roman Empire, a man by the name of Tarasis Kodisa Rousombladadiotes, later to be known as the Emperor Zeno. By this time, almost all Baltic Greeks, who were then and are now about 10% of the total Greek population, knew of the ancient homeland in the Baltics. Under Zeno, the once great empire was Hellenized, and their unspoken goal was to take the Baltics. This was the true goal of what was now called the Byzantine Empire for nearly 1000 years. The Byzantines, however, were constantly rebuffed in their attempts by the heroic efforts of the Bulgarians, Germans, and Persians, among others.
Okay so first off:
Man the Byzantines must have really sucked at reading maps then, huh? Reclaiming north africa, Italy, bits of Spain, fighting off Persians and Turks in Anatolia, trying to keep the bulgarians and Balkans controlled. Not really a path to the baltic.
The only bright spot in Byzantine history, which was full of typical Baltic Greek atrocities and greed, was the Emperor Justinian, the final Ethnic Greek Emperor of Rome. 50 years after the hostile takeover of the Roman Empire by the Baltic Greeks, the Emperor Justinian ceased any foolish attempts to invade the north, instead regaining the Byzantine Empire’s rightful land in the Mediterranean.
...
I'm sorry what? An illyrian who spoke Latin natively is the 'last ethnic greek'?
there was not a single Ethnic Greek crowned Emperor from Justinian’s death in 565, to the final fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453.
I mean... in the sense of 'they're Romans, not Greeks' he's not wrong.
A majorly important event, unbeknownst to the Baltic Greeks at large at the time, occurred in 1230 AD. [...]somehow, this insane priest walked 750 miles north, to Transylvania, which at the time was the home of the heavily Germanic Teutonic Knights.
Andrew II of Hungary expelled them from transylvania in 1225.
He again survived the perilous journey back home, and gave the texts personally to the Byzantine Emperor John III. Emperor John took these texts to his greatest alchemists, but they informed the Emperor that they would take 250 years to decipher.
That's now how translating texts works. That's not how it works at all!
The Empire would not last that long. The Turks from the east slowly but surely took Byzantine land from them, until the Baltic Greeks were left with only the city of Constantinople to call their own.
We just ignoring the Despotate of the Morea here? The one that didn't fall till 1460?
a Baltic Greek defector informed the Ottoman Turkish Emperor Mehmed II of the entire Baltic Greek history, and the maps that were nearly fully deciphered, that would lead to the Byzantines potentially taking over the known world. Mehmed could not allow this, and he decided to attack Constantinople.
Dude, you've made a massive deal about how hard it is to march from Greece to the Baltics. How the hell were the Byzantines going to do that in 1453? With or without maps?
Constantine XI, the final Byzantine emperor, would not allow the loss of the last possible aid for the Baltic Greeks. So, right before the city fell, Constantine left the city under cover of darkness, and fled to a cave, where Baltic Greeks believe he became a Marble Emperor, who will one day, when Greece and the Baltics are under the same Baltic Greek flag, arise and rule the world, providing the needed map to Hyperborea.
That's not how the marble emperor myth works. An angel stole him away and hid him in a cave as a statue till he'll one day return to unite the Greeks.
32 years later, in 1485, Christopher Columbus had an idea. A Baltic Greek himself, the descendant of the still-extant Italian Griko community, he knew that things were desperate. Columbus wished to help his people dominate the world, and he set out to do the only thing he could think of: like Alexander, he would set out to circumnavigate the world, and find a new route to the Baltics. He wished to find a route above Russia, that would lead him straight to the Baltics, which he planned to, at a later date, attempt to capture with a Baltic Greek force.
Man the people in his story really don't know how to go places do they. Does he have the same issue following directions? Does he end up in the bathroom when trying to get to the kitchen?
The Baltic Greeks came to view Columbus as a traitor, and they became stagnant for many years, secretly dominating the culture of other countries such as Italy and Russia, the latter of whom they had spread their Orthodox ‘Religion’ to.
The Rus started to convert to Orthodoxy in the 10th century. Officially. Unofficially it's older.
Also note that we've gone from 'baltic priests keep their old religion alive and it mingles with hellenic' [no shit they're both from indo-european roots] to 'baltic priests made the orthodox church'.
[...]
Sadly, Napoleon was defeated by the crafty tactics of the Baltic Greeks
[Confused British noises]
After 8 long years, the Greek forces had won, and a king was to be chosen. They chose a German, Otto, of House Wittelsbach. Many people then, and to this day, have asked why this was done. It’s obvious when you think about it. If a Baltic Greek was made King, just like the Byzantine emperors many years prior, he would have been obsessed with openly capturing the Baltics, which would have been potentially disastrous to Baltic Greek plans. So, a hapless German Royal was chosen, allowing the Baltic Greeks to operate in the shadows.
...
Honestly I'm expecting them to say that Baltic Greeks are lizardmen.
Otto was related (somewhat) to the Komnenos and Laskaris dynasties via his ancestor John II (John's maternal grandmother's mother's father's mother was Maria Laskarina whose mother was the daughter of Alexios III Angelos whose father was Andronikos Doukas Angelos whose mother was Theodora Komnene who was one of the daughters of Alexios I Komnenos). A Monarchy was decided upon and chosen without the input of Greeks.
[...] side note: similar to jewesses, Baltic Greek girls are trained from birth to use their looks and charms to try and ensnare powerful men in their trap)
Ah, it's a neo-nazi. Gotcha.
The Baltic Greeks also wanted Russia to lose, and they sent their Orthodox Christian lackey Grigori Rasputin to ensure that this would happen.
No conspiracy theory is complete without Rasputin, is it?
The Baltic Greeks would easily be able to dominate Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, as they are taught all three languages surreptitiously by their parents.
Knowing a language doesn't make you king of places. I'm not the bloody king of England just because my parents and schooling system taught me English. If I ran around saying I can dominate a small bit of France because I know some French, they'd call me a loony. Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses not from linguistic expertise.
The Baltic Greeks were soundly defeated by 1922, and the 1,000,000 Greek interlopers in Turkey were finally kicked out for good.
...are we calling 'ethnic cleansing and population transfers' 'cleaning up interlopers' or am I misunderstanding this?
n the Jewish Communist state known as the Soviet Union
Why do these crazy people always end up being Nazis?
His plan was to make the Soviet Union into a death machine
Why hi there black book of communism.
Hitler knew about the Hyperborean magic that Baltic Greek Stalin wished to harness
Are we in an anime now? Is it magic hitler v technocrat mecha Stalin time? Is Cyborg FDR going to fight tentacle-girl Hirohito? Was WW2 a harem anime with Churchill as the star?
1939 came along, and Mussolini, although he was a great man, made a mistake.
'Great man' is a weird way to spell 'fascist that ended up dangling upside down after being torn to pieces by the people'.
That same year, Stalin invaded all three Baltic States, and the ancient Baltic Satellite state of Finland.
The fins aren't baltic and we're ignoring the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact now?
Hitler’s attack on the Soviet Union seemed bound for success, and he soon took back the Baltics, and appointed Alfred Rosenberg to lead them. But, there was a menace far to the west: Franklin D. Roosevelt, himself a Baltic Greek
...
He sided with the Baltic Greeks Stalin and Roosevelt. Initially, he wished for peace after the German victory in France, but Stalin and Roosevelt blackmailed him with secrets involving his various affairs, and he was forced to stay in the war.
You're confusing Churchill with Halifax.
Enver Hoxha, the Heroic head of Albania, knew about the Baltic Greek menace. He split with the USSR when he found out about it, and afterwards he opposed them at every turn.
This guy is both pro Hoxha and pro-hitler.
I don't get it.
But they are still used. Young Albanian teens use them to make love in, often resulting in pregnancy. Hoxha’s spirit sees this, and smiles at the copulating couples, knowing that his dream is still alive, and that the great Albanian race will continue to exist.
Wait, it was Albanian nationalism all along?
As you may see, the Albanians are possibly the last great hope for us all. Someday, I hope to live there in peace, after my victory against the Baltic Greeks. That day may never come, but it is my dream, my desire, my very essence lives in Albania. [...] I have recently acquired a gorgeous Albanian bride, and she is currently pregnant with my first Albanian Son, who I shall name Adolf Enver. I have acquired multiple shirts with the Albanian flag on them, and I shall wear them exclusively until my last day.
Oh, so he's not even Albanian.
Also 'acquired' by the emperor they're your spouse not a potted plant.
Some of you may ask if my motto is still “88”, for Heil Hitler. The answer is yes and no. To me, 88 is still my motto, but it stands for something else: still H and H, but now it is Hitler and Hoxha.
I...what?
Hitlerism with albanian characteristics? We must secure bunkers for the race to continue?
Baltic Greeks by and large blend in with the average Greek population, yet they are generally less Swarthy. There are two major strains of Baltic Greeks, the Latvian Baltic Greeks, and the Lithuanian Baltic Greeks.
Breaking news! Estonia doesn't real.
Just...what.
Bibliography
submitted by Changeling_Wil to badhistory [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 02:36 Readerstein [Sweet Nola] - Chapter 9

Chapter 1
The second semester courses have all but finished and the dreaded time of exams have finally arrived. For Nola, she couldn't wait to get it over. There was the after exam party, Eleanor's and Allie's concert in the city theatre and last but not least, a corporate paid vacation to the USA coming up. There was a whole slew of summer events waiting for her.
In her free time when she wasn't out drinking in the pub with her college colleagues, she read through her neatly written notes and researched beyond what the courses covered. Her notes were written in beautiful neat female handwriting.
After the humiliation she considered in the research project module, she upped her game tenfold regarding her thesis. She rang up her company writing with the urgency of a cry to war. With her supervisor and team, she worked them aggressively to the bone. There was such fury and fire from Nola's mania that two team members transferred themselves to a different team wanting out. The end result was a thesis plan so fully formed and well written that it had in its own right become a perfectly submittable thesis.
Her roommate that possessed incredible mass, Lauren, walked into the kitchen. Her flabs wobbled like jelly as she waddled to the sink. Her stubby short arms reached for the cupboards for a glass and she filled it with tap water. Despite her looks, she was a neat person on the outside. She'd clean her glass after using it instead of dropping it into the sink as Nola would have done in her old home. She'd wash the dishes the rare time she didn't order takeaway and she hardly came out of her room so she didn't make a mess outside. She worked at home in her room all day. She had a motherly and considerate personality. She leaves her room door open for Allie when Nola was out and she was approachable in case he needed anything. Nola and Lauren were good friends and she would invite her out to the college parties when Eleanor was over to look after Allie.
Lauren caught Nola looking at her with an empty bliss.
"How's studying going?"
Nola threw her head down on the table and breathed out a hefty sigh.
"I need to study with a drink in one hand and notes on the other."
"Sure, there's beer in the fridge."
Lauren did not catch her sense of humour at all.
"If I start now, I'll be knocked out before Allie even gets home from school. What a bad example I'll set," she paused, seeing if Lauren at least knew how to smile. She didn't. "What about your work?"
"Oh, it's going so-so." She bobbled her head as she spoke and her flabs jiggled like a wave. "It's tough, organising the team's Jira and Confluence and picking up the messes they leave. I'm currently learning how to use JAVAX on the side."
Nola gave a look of feigned understanding.
"I've also been planning my wedding."
Nola's life revitalised at this point. That, she understood.
"Sit down, tell me if you have time."
And so Lauren described her dream wedding that she was seeing through, a mediaeval fantasy themed wedding. Nola's knowledge of fantasy only went as far as the Lord of the Rings movie. She imagined the groom and bride in chain armour while saying their vows at the altar in a fashion of being knighted by the priest.
Nola sat and listened with wide eyes and her heavier than usual eye bags. Lauren was such a land whale and managed to bag somebody considering her uptight personality. She would dawdle on and on with women chatter but on tech. She was stern, righteous and commanding. Nola guessed that her boyfriend was held on a leash like a dog. She felt envious.
"We have a house by the lake eyed."
"Things are moving fast," Nola commented. "Are you thinking of having children?"
"No. Well, maybe. Twenty-nine is still young. There's tons more time to mull over. I'm in no rush at all."
Tons more was right, Nola thought. Twenty-nine though; it seems most marriages with people she knew were married by then. Beauty had an expiration date. Nola's sister was three years older and she learnt she was engaged a few months ago.
Lauren excused herself to go stare off at her computer again. Allie came home not so long later and now the two of them sat at the kitchen table doing school work. She looked at him quietly doing homework. He looked back at her. They traded looks every few seconds like a game to see who how long they could look before the other spotted the staring.
"What~?" He giggled.
"Just thinking."
"Thinking 'bout what?"
"Thinking about-" and she jumped over to him and lifted him up, took him to their bedroom and had a sibling wrestling match where Nola always lost due to exhaustion. This was all she needed. She flicked on the TV in their room and watched an afternoon cartoon mindlessly with Allie before falling asleep.
The five exams took place over a period of two weeks around the college. Most of them were sat in the large event halls of the college gym. For one of the exams, she came in ten minutes late. Everybody in the class breathed a collective sigh when they saw her grab her seat.
The electronic bell rang to signal the end of the exam. While the examiners collected the papers. Mark, who was sitting in front of her, turned around to give the predictable banter at Nola on her usual tardiness.
Ben was two seats behind her and had always left thirty minutes before the exam was over so he wasn't trapped to stay to the very end. Not many decided to leave before the exam was over. She had not spoken to him since the study period started. He said he was busy studying.
She headed home to study more and the days repeated like a drunken stupor to her. Study, eat, study eat, study, eat study, study eat more sleep study eat study eat sleep...
The last day of exams took place and plans of drinking had been on the table since the beginning. Tonight will be the last big one since the hDips will be graduating and they made up two thirds of the classes. She felt a bit depressed but that may be because today's was the hardest exam. The exam was the social marketing module taught by the cowboy strapped American. She had created a very social class with multiple group projects that Nola greatly enjoyed. Some projects actually involved real start-ups looking for strategies. Hard working college students, who paid expensive tuition fees, were giving them ideas for free! Nola felt she took a bite of the infamous non-paid internship of the great states of America. Annoyed as she was, she felt at home with real business scenarios compared to the theoretical nonsensical Marxist theory that the Texan taught in class.
There was only one question for the exam and that was: 'Describe Social Media through Marx's Gobble Gook'. This was not how it was phrased but it was indeed an accurate interpretation of the one question of the exam. Easy, she thought. She put her pen to paper.
“Well, the knowledgeable labour aristocracy derives...and the rate of exploitation depends on the varying...finally, by Marx (1867), it is given through proven mathematical theory that... profit rate is equal to the surplus value divided by the fixed costs plus variable cap...” As she wrote, she wondered if Marx and Engels were appalled to see their precious philosophy applied to social media and causing suffering for the poor marketing students.
The Texan lecturer's class involved the study of a textbook that sought to apply the theory of communism to social media. It was an apt model, she thought. However, the text was the most pretentious and coercive, academically abstractly dense as one could write, jumping from far-fetched hyperlinking of dense references and written in the most peremptory and obtuse mangling of words as possible. It was without doubt, the worst book she had ever laid her eyes upon.
After her intense study on the communist manifesto of social media, she felt ready to compose her thesis for next year in flowery abstract language that academics flaunt in.
Not once did the pen waver and when the final bell tolled, the ink cartridge was drained to the tip. Two whole exam books were filled up in its entirety with fast, sloppy cursive. Her normally neat handwriting was sacrificed for speed.
She came out of the hall and shielded her eyes when the summer sunshine struck. She saw her close group of friends in her marketing course and her usual beta orbiters chatting to each other in a circle.
Nola slinked into the group and saluted Asim beside her with a casual wave. The Korean was speaking rather hotly about the exam.
"The whole theory of Marx's is so stupid. I have never read something so stupid in my entire life," Jeong said.
"Yeah, I agree," Nola nodded.
"What I'm saying though, is you have to force yourself to write what the examiners looking for," Keith said.
"Yeah, that's common sense," Jeong agreed.
Nola knew why Jeong was probably so annoyed. It was because he was South Korean and he hated the commies in the north. Jeong didn't like communism because it opposed his religion. Jeong had told Nola in one of the many drinking parties that he was a devout Christian. It surprised her. He proudly told her that he was part of the Shinsheonji Church of Jesus. He believed that the founder of the church, Man-hee Lee, was the second coming of Jesus Christ, our lord and saviour.
"Did you see her?" Jeong was talking about the cowboy strutting lecturer. He did not let his grudge go away easily, "We call that cosplay where I'm from."
"I think it looks exotic. She's Texan and that's how all Texas dress up, I'm sure."
"Yeah, of course. They all strut outside wearing a wide brim hat, long brown cowboy coats and those boots with those spinning stars at the back. Yeah, I'm sure they all look like they jumped out of a Wild West serial." They laughed.
Nola asked them all for a picture. There were some in this little group, like Keith, that weren't part of the marketing master's. For them, this was their last exam. Nola was going to make sure she'd get pictures of everybody. She had taken Ben's advice. She would post it in their class' group chat. But mostly, it was for herself to look back on.
They headed in their group of four down to town for some grub that would line their stomach for the alcohol tonight. It was going to be the biggest party of the class.
They went to a pizza joint that Keith recommended after searching for the best pizza parlors in town online. It was nice, a bit rundown. It was ran by actual Italians that made pizza that wasn't anything like actual Italian pizza.
Nola fiddled with her phone, scrolling through the messages in the group chat and put out a message if anybody would like to join them. She had seen Ben in the corner of her eye as they exited the student building. Even he had stayed to the very end of that exam. She was about to message him privately and saw his profile; he had not been online for over a month.
Last time, he didn't go to the party after the Christmas exams as well. Everybody did. Except him. So be it. She went up to the counter to grab two more slices of pizza and shoved it aggressively into her mouth.
"No drinks?" Jeong asked.
"Oh, we're be drinking soon Jeong-ny boy. The bar's just a short walk from here,” Keith said. "We won't be parched by the time we get there."
"Some of them are already there," Asim checked his phone.
"They headed straight there after the exam."
"I'm full. Let's get this party started," Nola growled with hunger for the drinks. "They'll be on round three by the time we get there."
"You'll catch up in no time."
Nola leaned back and rubbed her tummy like a big momma bear. Her eyes swirling in craze for alcohol. Her college friends thought she was a beer meister due to her fridge-like build that suggested a large calorie intake. She was actually a cocktail person. She liked the colourful taste and looks of those little dainty drinks.
When they arrived at the bar, they found one of their classmates buying a pint. He was tall, handsome and blond and a fine Aryan specimen. 
"There's five of them out at the back."
Nola gave a sly pat on the buttocks of the tall, stoic man which made him twirl and spill some foam from his pint.
"Nola, you big perv," said Asim. They all laughed except the prude Korean who shook his head and muttered, "Westerners" beneath his breath.
Soon the beer garden crowed with students from the marketing discipline and some others but it remained predominantly a turf for the marketing students. Nola went around taking pictures of the final day. She knew when she would look back further along the years that time seemed to have flung by. The year had passed slowly in the beginning, life in a new city, meeting new people, a new home and a refreshing restart from the stagnant office life of withered old men.
Next year would be lonelier, there would be no classes, and the whole year was focused solely for writing their thesis. She couldn't believe people paid for the course. A year of nothing with an expensive college fee. She was lucky that the company paid for all of her expenses.
A tall, bald man went over to Nola's table. He had deep sunken eyes and heavy eye bags, no doubt from studying, she assumed. His ears was pointed and the top of his head was pointed. He had a Van Dyke beard and wore a long, thick, black overcoat. His whole menacing appearance resembled some mook from a mafia or a vampire movie. He stood a head and a half taller than Nola. Nola had learnt that he was from Latvia from past conversations with him. That made sense, she thought, a former Soviet country just like myself.
The bald thug of a man had let them know of a music competition in the club beside this bar. There was a DJ contest held tonight and one of the marketing students had entered. With enough people, they could rig it. Nola and her crew went in with full intent to help them. The music was awful and she left with a splitting headache. She left alone and went back to the original bar. She had hoped to see Ben there. Ben was the first person she met in college, the only one that seemingly eluded her. There was no surprise when she saw the same familiar faces at the bar. She decided to go back home. At least Allie was always there.
The exams were over, college life has halted. There was the paid vacation to look forward to.
She had received an email with all the details regarding the work convention in San Francisco. This was the third time she would go on a corporate trip and she had learnt from a friend on how the reimbursements were handled. The friend was one of the employees who handled the accounting for corporate trips. She told Nola that as long as it didn't surpass one thousand euro, they didn't inquire deeply into the expenses. Added in with a little photoshop to doctor two airplane tickets into one expense, she could travel with a companion. Every year, hundreds of millions disappeared mysteriously for the poor global behemoth of a company.
She planned to take a friend with her, all airline expenses paid for the lucky one.
But before that, Eleanor and Allie were preforming at the City Hall Theatre next week. Eleanor, a world renowned pianists, was drawing huge news for the music festival in the modestly sized city. Nola had invited her beta orbiters but not Ben. There has never been a person that annoyed her so much as him from doing nothing.
....
Eleanor looked across to Allie who had the honours of finishing off Mozart's Sonata for 2 Pianos in D. A roar of applause erupted from all five hundred in the audience of the concert hall.
There was an after party in the small bar in the upstairs lobby. Allie was surrounded with journalists interviewing the little prodigy. Some jested lightly about him being in a wheelchair. I'll give up my legs to play as well and so on. Eleanor fended them off, becoming disgruntled in her quick tempered manner after that joke. Nola stood across from them and watched with a colourful cocktail in hand. Nola didn't mind the jokes. Pity was the thing she hated the most.
There were professional music producers who attended the event for Eleanor and they were arguing over each other with Nola in the middle about signing recordings and collaborations. She appeared meek to their offers and thought to herself that she might ask Eleanor later. She wasn't planning to give up Allie to anyone.
She looked at Allie, now chatting joyously to a group of girls his age, playing some game whereby he placed his hand on top of theirs, moving their little fingers in unison to play an invisible keyboard.
"What's the matter?" Eleanor popped over to her standing table after relishing in front of the press and soaking in appraisal and then kicking them all away. "You look a bit melancholic. Are you sad because Allie's coming over with me for a month."
"It's more than that Ellie. Take care of him for me and send pictures regularly to me." Nola listed her lengthy requirements to Eleanor. Eleanor's eyes rolled up for the whole duration. She decided to change the subject.
"Have you found somebody to travel to your work convention?"
"No. Sarah's working and all my closer classmates are gone on their own paths and holidays." She sighed.
"Did you ask Ben? I thought I saw him earlier. He has good taste in music to say the least," she said to Nola but she wasn't listening. She was looking lethargically around the room.
Her Korean friend Jeong was by the bar counter flirting with a lady in a red dress, abandoning Nola. Lauren was here with her hubby and Matt was here as well. He had developed quite an infatuation with Eleanor since they met when he drove them over to their new home. Eleanor saw him as a handy butler. Behind Eleanor, she saw a phantom. She was sure of it. A phantom that appears whenever she averts her eyes.
It jumped and darted down the stairs. Nola brushed passed Eleanor, nearly toppling her drink, pushed herself across the crowd only to find the man walk back up the stairs. The man wore the black and white formal attire and a masquerade mask.
"Ben!"
He slowly took of his mask. His handsome, young face, tanned skin, flaxen hair, lean physique and unmistakable eyebrows had caught Nola. What drew her in the most out of his attributes was his strangeness. An eccentricity that Eleanor had noticed.
He paused, looking unsure of what to say, “What are the chances? I'm here as a photographer for the event.” He raised up his professional looking camera with a large flash attachment and a lens that protruded seven inches of air in front of him. “I saw the event on the papers. Thought I'd come, ha-ha. How's it going?”
"You should have told me. I could have gotten you tickets for you for free." She wanted to scold him, the fact that he didn't show up for the final party as well. She furrowed her eyebrows. Why didn't he just say so if he wanted to come?
She dragged him away downstairs and outside. They walked down the cool, empty night street.
"Don't you have to stay by your brother?" he asked. "What's wrong?” he asked again when she didn't reply.
"My brother's fine," she let out a sigh and then continued, "he's going over to Eleanor’s for a few weeks."
"Oh."
"Let me see your photos."
Ben sweated in the cool, night air, keeping up with her as she walked with a vigorous pace and purpose.
Ben turned on the camera and passed it over to her hands while it still hung around his neck. He had swapped the memory card when he dropped down the stairs and was perfectly content with her swiping through the photos.
"These are amazing!" There was a photo that showed Allie up close angled from the bottom. "How did you even get this angle?"
"I was hiding beneath the floorboards for that one."
She laughed not believing him. "Send me all of them. You have some serious talent." She looked at him, he was much closer now; he had thick eyebrows that balanced the masculinity of his youthful, delicate face. He wore an expression of sly innocence that Allie did often, like when he's hiding something.
"Things like art are wholly subjective,” he answered.
They discussed the music performance, music they like, surprisingly they both liked to listen to movie soundtracks, talked a good length about the art they like, of her friends and his photography adventure. A man had broken into his home once and he vowed to find the culprits. He went through extreme lengths, studied criminal profiling and broke into nearby surveillance cameras. Once he deduced as much as he could, he waited patiently for the culprit using the hacked CCTV cameras. He even snuck into a neighbour's house suspecting them. In the end he failed to find the culprits, he said this all with icy coldness. His final year project came from this experience and his obsession with photography stemmed from this event as well.
He kept her second guessing at every turn as he told her. What he lost in the burglary, he had gained something else. It was the same with Allie, she thought. He had the night of his life tonight because he couldn't walk. She decided to tell Ben about his brother's disability.
There were complications during their mother's pregnancy that the doctor could not explain. He was taken out by an emergency C-section. He suffered an unexplainable neurological disorder. Anything below his waist, he couldn't move except his toes.
"Isn't that weird? How does it happen that the toes can wiggle but not the upper parts! I just don't know," the frustration crept into her voice. Ben could only look at her.
"World's fucked," he casually lets out. She laughed. A laugh that she used to veil her sadness.
They arrived onto the cobblestone street of the main shopping district. It was bustling with happy couples, groups of trashy, dolled up girls in tight, short dresses and two happy drunks staggering and shouting obscenities at a copper statue.
"I have a proposal to make."
Ben listened and could not believe what he heard. Nola had invited her to a trip abroad to San Francisco, airline tickets paid.
"Are you sure you want me?" he asked, eyes wide in disbelief. Eleanor seemed to be the natural choice but she was staying with Allie. He roughly estimated how much it would cause for the other expenses. He came to the conclusion it was a once in a lifetime out of the deal.
"I think you'll make for a good travel companion." she looked at his clear cut features trying to guess his thought process. "I think I'm pretty dependable and hassle free if you're worried," she reassured him. "Come, and bring your camera."
He accepted. He was starting to like her as a person.
Chapter 10
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2020.07.27 12:47 27JJulbarium Carbon Da-ting We-bsite

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2020.06.30 21:18 Millero15 Crusader Finns Developer Diary 21: Favor, Flavor, Future plans and Imminent Release!

Obligatory Discord link: https://discord.gg/FZ5Ky5P
Hello again. This will be the last Developer Diary before the mod is released. I'll try to say everything that I want to say before the mod is released. We'll see how big this one will be.
FAVOR AND FLAVOR
Flavor is one of the big things I've been concerned with this mod is the amount of flavor there is. A fear I've had is that different cultures, religions, and religions are all too identical. For that reason I've done my best to add in flavor for major religions and some regions/cultures. I've also sought to add in things which make this mod unique when compated to vanilla or other total conversion mods, such as ATE:FF, which inspired this very mod.
Before anyone passes judgement on the mod for a lack of flavor, they should remember that the mod's dev team only concists of three people, and the two others have spent most of their time on things that most take for granted as well as the mod's offmap empire. Essentially all main features of the mod were actually made by a single person, me. But the folks over at the Discord server have sure helped with their ideas and suggestions.
In total, there are over 500 new events in this mod, in large part flavor. Some religions and regions get a bigger slice of the pie than others, which should be expected. As an example, the Pekoist religion remains very raw, while religions like Karelianism and Laestadianism have gotten much better treatment. Latvia, as a region, is quite bland in comparison to, say, Southern Finland or even the Arctic Coast. Some cultures also have something unique alongside a good number of possible dynasty names, while other cultures don't.
THE VISION
Since the beginning I've wondered how this mod will turn out. As I've often mentioned before, After the End: Fan Fork. Yet I've known from the beginning that my mod won't be as massive in scale, and I doubt that I've managed to recreate the same magic. After the End is like a second CK2. It covers a massive area with no shortage of cultures, religions or place names. Recreating the same experience with Finland and the surroundings is simply impossible. There is not enough to work from, but I've done my best.
In terms of province count and map size, Crusader Finns is well behind both vanilla and ATE:FF. The same applies to number of unique cultures, culture groups, religions, and religion groups. Again, I can atomize certain cultures only so much. But I won't let that get in the way. It is my aim to make Crusader Finns as interesting as any mod could be. This is in part done with lore that is hidden around the mod, as well as elsewhere. In fact, creating lore is perhaps the one thing I loved the most when making this mod. But there's surely a lot more for the mod to offer than that.
The idea of Crusader Finns is to recreate Crusader Kings 2 in an unrealistic yet convincing post-apocalyptic environment. I wanted to create something like After the End in my native country and the surroundings. It was a wild and crazy idea, and it's amazing that Crusader Finns has not joined the numerous mods and projects that were abandoned mid-way. But here we are!
My aim is for there to be something for everyone in this mod. I've repurposed a lot of things from vanilla in this mod. Lutheranism is an obvious ripoff of Catholicism, while the latter reselmbles religions like Nestorianism mechanically. Orthodox Christianity largely behaves like it used to, and there are always the Pagans. But there's plenty of new too! Svecomania and Karelianism are religions centered around a culture, making them powerful culture conversion tools, while the latter is also dedicated to the reconquest of a geographical area. But I can't list all the stuff here, as I've covered it all in previous DD's.
THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Crusader Finns started as a little personal pet project of mine back at the end of July and the beginning of August 2019. It was never easy. From the very startm I've been tormented by crashes. The most difficult part of the mod was indeed the very beginning - getting the game to launch at all with the bare minimum of the map added. After many difficult days, I finally succeeded in getting the mod to launch, and to this day I don't know what the problem was. From the very start, since when Crusader Finns was but a thought in my head, the mod has gotten some attention.
The first part was making the map. I had a clear idea about what it should cover, and I went around to look for maps I could base mine off. But I could find none, so eventually I had to cut a part of the HoI4 map and mess around until it was the right size and scale. Then I had to add detail to the map, largely the coastline, lakes, and major rivers. First time around I didn't do such a stellar job with the lakes, so I had to redraw most of them at a later point.
After the map was drawn, I started filling the map with provinces. It was a tedious process, but thinking about it makes me almost nostalgic now. Again, the work I did at that point was amended quite a lot later as the shape, size, and number of provinces was greatly modified. Alongside that I also started filling the map with realms and characters.
For many months most of what I did was fill the map in various ways. Crashes to desktop and other issues were always a nightmare, no matter what I did. As the map expanded and more Developer Diaries were released, more and more people started expressing interest in the mod. It is around then the two other developers, Galaxion and Boomer Kaiser, joined and eventually became devs themselves. I don't know if I would have ever finished without them, as they largely filled the map with coats of arms, and there's no way I could have done a good job with that.
By January the whole map was filled, and I could properly get into converting all the events and decisions from vanilla onto the mod. Over the months I started also adding all sorts of things, probably everything that the mod is known for thus far. Ever since then it's been more or less smooth sailing, except for the part where I decided to expand the map into Latvia. That was a total and utter nightmare. But that too was done and dealt with. Since January I've been further amending the map, converting vanilla stuff, making lots and lots of event, making sure that DLC features work, and a massive number of other tasks that I won't get into.
And now release is right around the corner. It's been great! The release date for Crusader Finns is JULY 5
FUTURE PLANS
I won't be able to work much after the release since I'll be conscripted the very next day. Of course I'll have free time to fix any bugs and issues that may appear. But I'll likely not develop this mod that much further even when I get back, as I already have my eyes set on CK3. I see great potential in a CK3 port of Crusader Finns, let's call it "Crusader Finns 3". I'll likely make Crusader Finns 3 greater than the original Crusader Finns ever could be. But who knows how things will go?
As always, if you have any questions, be sure to ask them. I'll happily take any feedback you have!
submitted by Millero15 to CrusaderFinns [link] [comments]


2020.05.06 15:14 Mel0n_Collie [OC] What if every world cup team had the same population? - Group H

Well here it is, the final group. It’s been a wild ride and my office chair's ass groove has developed its own ass groove, but if FIFA and/or The UN sees this and decides to reconstruct the fabric of political geography to emulate my idea, then it just might have been a worthwhile use of my time.
If you’ve just stumbled upon this then you have two options, either you call the day a write off and go back to read the first seven posts or you can close your browser and do literally anything else. Just incase anyone chooses option A, here are the groups in full…
Group A, Group B, Group C, Group D, Group E, Group F, Group G
Gentlemen, it’s been an honour writing with you, this final quartet strings together a titanic amount of talent.
The Final Countdown is fronted by Europe, I experience REM trying to find 22 Chinese Bro’s, and we take a visit to Drake’s home country Canada, for those of you not wanting to think about Drake today, I’m afraid if you’re reading this it’s too late.
CEUSAC
Canada, The Carribean, 24 most Easternly US states, Greenland
Population (millions): 242.42
Not to be confused with namesake John, this map to the stars is acronymically composed of ‘Canada, East US and Carribean’.
Five years ago it would be no exaggeration to say that this squad could have been an all-American draft, but a recent glut of Canadian and Jamaican talent makes this Atlantic amalgam a multi-national roster sweeter than maple syrup.
The Canucks have an underwhelming soccer CV, the ice-hockey adoring nation has the joint worst record of any team to qualify for a world cup, losing all three games without scoring a goal in 1986. Notable Canadians of the past include goalkeeper Craig Forrest who made over 250 appearances for Ipswich and won tournament MVP in Canada’s second and most recent Gold Cup triumph. Utility midfielder Paul Stalteri spent thirteen years playing between Germany and England’s top flights, while Les Rouges top scorer and 2011 MLS MVP Dwayne De Rosario is the greatest player to never leave the continent.
Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti and Trinidad & Tobago have all matched Canada’s solitary appearance, while the former are present throughout this squad, the other nation’s have failed to produce this generations Dwight Yorke.
Now-commentator Robbie Earle has just one less Premier League appearance than Eden Hazard and the midfielder scored Jamaica’s first World Cup goal. Earle was born in Newcastle, England, but some notable Islanders having traded allegiances the other way, the past and present pair of John Barnes and Raheem Sterling were both born in capital Kingston, and have gone on to be among the best wide players of their respective generation. A bitter loss to the Reggae Boys, Sterling may get some extreme boo’s if he starts against this team, provoking the irate of the Carribean. (come on it’s the last post)
Arguably the greatest player to represent an island nation is bulky Bermudan Shaun ‘feed the goat’ Goater; talented out-and-out forward scored over 220 times in English football, and an impressive goal every 85 minutes for his country.
The best former American from the strongest region of the three joined City two days after Goater left, Claudio Reyna has a century of caps spanning over a decade, even earning a spot in the all-star team of Japan/Korea 2002. The footballing genetics are strong in the Reyna family, the man from New Jersey sure to have produced a future USMNT star. Giovanni Reyna doesn’t make this squad on the count of a stacked midfield, but considering the 17 year old is already capable of goals like this it’s only a matter of time before he’s the first name on the team sheet.
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Milan Borjan CAN Red Star GK Knin, Croatia 63 €1.00 32
Zach Steffen USA F. Dusseldorf GK Coatesville, PA 68 €17.50 25
Defenders
Walker Zimmerman USA LAFC CB Lawrenceville, GA 61 €3.10 27
Matt Hedges USA FC Dallas CB Rochester, NY 61 €3.60 30
Wes Morgan JAM Leicester CB Nottingham 66 €1.50 36
Alphonso Davies CAN Bayern Munich LWB Ghana 68 €7.30 19
Adrian Mariappa JAM Watford CB London 64 €5.00 33
Kemar Lawrence JAM Red Bull NY LB Kingston 61 €3.10 27
Ike Opara USA Minnesota Utd CB Durham, NC 62 €3.30 31
Timmy Chandler USA Frankfurt RB Frankfurt 64 €3.30 30
Midfielders
Daniel Johnson JAM Preston NE CAM Kingston 62 €8.20 27
Jonathan David CAN Gent CAM Brooklyn, NY 65 €9.50 20
Atiba Hutchinson CAN Besiktas CDM Ontario 65 €0.70 36
Cristian Pulisic USA Chelsea LW Hershey, PA 75 €43.30 21
Tyler Adams USA RB Leipzig CDM Wappinger, NY 65 €4.80 21
Leon Bailey JAM Bayer Leverkusen LW Kingston 76 €38.20 22
Osvaldo Alonso CUB Minnesota Utd CDM San Cristobal 63 €1.20 34
Romaine Sawyers STK West Brom CM Birmingham 65 €12.50 28
Forwards
Mariano Diaz DOM Real Madrid ST Catelonia 74 €29.80 26
Jozy Altidore USA Toronto ST Livingston, NJ 66 €5.40 30
Lucas Cavallini CAN Vancouver ST Toronto 65 €3.20 27
Kemar Roofe JAM Anderlecht ST Walsall 65 €8.80 27
Average/Totals 66 €214.30 25.82
Tempted to include his name in the title to break the subs upvote record, Christian Pulisic is a $73 million man receiving the attacking midfield tutorship of Frank Lampard at Chelsea. With 31 caps and 17 goals for his country at just 21, the man from Hershey has mounds of talent that might see him finish his career as the male Megan Rapinoe.
I’m hesitant to call Pulisic the star of the show, as the winger turned wingback Alphonso Davies looks almost certain to become a world-class player at Bayern Munich. Born in a Ghanian refugee camp to Liberian parents, the prodigy is a proud Canadian national who announced himself by scoring a 93rd minute winner against Sporting Kansas City aged just 15. He went on to score three times for his adoptive country in the 2017 Gold Cup the following year, sharing a continental golden boot award before being legally old enough to donate blood. In recent memory Davies displayed a man of the match performance knocking Pulisic’ Chelsea out of the Champions League.
Ronaldo’s brief successor to the number 7 shirt at Real Madrid, Mariano leads the line, despite just 1 cap for the Dominican Republic, I’m going out on a limb to predict he’ll bother turning up for this team
At one point believed to be the third in a trilogy of Anglo-Jamaican heists, Leon Bailey is a technically supreme winger with pace to match, now 22 he’s comparatively one of the older attacking role models in the tournament's youngest team. The average age is even more impressive when looking at aging leaders Atiba Hutchinson and Wes Morgan who collectively have a glistening trophy cabinet.
I think group winners will be a bridge too far but could this show what could be the beginning of a much more competitive CONCACAF in years to come. If my predictions are correct, the round of 16 will be a reenactment of the civil war.
East India
11 Indian states (Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal P, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, Bihar)
Population (millions): 178.20
Never having to research this nation's footballing downfalls again will be an Indian tonic, in what is actually the best team on paper from the second most populated country, they might just manage to concede fewer than thirty in this strong group.
I don’t have anything of value to say about this part of the world, so I’m going to try a social experiment and see if anyone gets this far without skipping to the next team, so here is the first few paragraphs of the WIkipedia entry for former Chelsea and Newcastle defender Celestine Babayaro...
Babayaro spent the majority of his career playing in the Premier League, mainly for Chelsea from 1997 to 2005, and then later for Newcastle United, from 2005 to 2008. He had a brief stint at MLS club LA Galaxy, but never officially played for the club, and was a free agent, before retiring in 2010. He represented the Nigerian national football team from 1995 to 2004, and was part of two Olympic squads, two World Cup squads and three African Cup of Nations squads.
Born in Kaduna, he began his playing career at Nigerian side Plateau United, before moving to Belgian club Anderlecht in 1994, and eventually would make a name for himself, quickly gaining first-choice status although still a teenager. Babayaro set records as the youngest player to make an appearance and to receive a red card in the UEFA Champions League. He was sent off in a match against Steaua Bucuresti in a 1–1 draw, aged 16 years and 86 days.
Now that you know the history, let’s see the team.
Goalkeepers Birthplace Football manager Value Age
Dheeraj Singh IND ATK GK Manipur 24 €0.02 19
Lalthuammawia Ralte IND FC Goa GK Mizoram 20 €0.01 27
Defenders
Salam Ranjan Singh IND ATK CB Manipur 28 €0.02 24
Raju Galkwad IND Kerala Blasters CB Maharashtra 21 €0.01 29
Jerry Lalrinzuala IND Chennaiyin LB Mizoram 27 €0.02 21
Dhanachandra Singh IND Mohun Bagan LB Manipur 22 €0.02 33
Abhishek Ambekar IND East Bengal LB Maharashtra 20 €0.01 28
Chhuantea IND Odisha LWB Mizoram 20 €0.01 31
Robet Lalthlamuana IND Northeast United LWB Mizoram 20 €0.01 31
Rahul Bheke IND Bengaluru RB Maharashtra 33 €0.03 29
Midfielders
Udanta Singh IND Bengaluru CM Manipur 37 €0.04 23
Lallianzuala Chhangte IND Chennaiyin CAM Mizoram 35 €0.04 22
Halicharan Narzary IND Hyderabad CM Assam 30 €0.02 25
Jackichand Singh IND Jamshedpur CM Manipur 30 €0.02 28
Vinit Rai IND Odisha CDM Assam 29 €0.02 22
Amarjit Singh IND Jamshedpur CDM Manipur 29 €0.02 19
Lalrindika Ralte IND East Bengal CM Mizoram 29 €0.02 27
Eugeneson Lyngdoh IND Bengaluru CM Meghalaya 28 €0.02 33
Forwards
Semboi IND Bengaluru ST Manipur 20 €0.01 27
Jeje IND Chennaiyin ST Mizoram 38 €0.03 29
Samuel Lalmuanpula IND Mizoram CAM Mizoram 22 €0.02 21
Komal Thatal IND Sikkim CAM Sikkim 22 €0.02 18
Average/Totals 27 €0.44 25.73
Udanta Singh is the key player in this squad, the right winger doesn’t have the greatest goal record for India but the Bengaluru stalwart was key to an historic 2015-16 season that saw the South Indian club win the I-League while reaching the final of the AFC Cup (Asian Europa league), doing all this at age just 18 saw him voted young player of the year in his homeland.
At 21 years old, Jerry Lalrinzuala was enjoying his fourth season as a regular for Chennaiyin and played every game in a victorious ISL season two years ago, the Mizoram man is one of India’s brightest shining players in a generation.
I honestly can’t wait to see what the damage is to these teams once the tournament is simmed, I think the golden boot will be decided on which world-class striker shows the least mercy, and between his exploits against Panama and swearing on his daughter's life begging for a goal that his hair scored, Harry Kane might be the man to do it.
North & Central Europe
United Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany
Population (millions): 243.13
Here it is the one you’ve all been waiting for, it’s the last megateam of the tournament and the region that contains Angela Merkal, the Chef from the muppets, and little old me.
The region combines for two world wars and five world cups (doo dah), and is dominated by two of the games fiercest rivals.
Die Mannschaft has seven major honours and football’s most ruthlessly efficient and consistent force, before the disaster of 2018, Germany’s worst finish this century was a bronze medal. Depressingly I had the best summer of my life cheering on an England team that finished fourth overall. With the group stage exit behind them and the Three Lion’s looking to build from their deepest run since 1990, these two nations are producing top players at a frightening rate and will no doubt renew the duel at some point this decade. With 18 of 22 players, the Anglo-Germanic mixture will face an existential crisis if they end up facing a penalty shootout.
The Nordic nations struggle to make an impact in the side, while Sweden and Finland have produced legends in the past like Sami Hyypia, Jari Litmanen, and striking duo Larrsson and Zlatan, Norway are patiently waiting for their newly foraged mix of raw ingredients to rise into a Golden generation. It will be a shock if Erling Braut Haaland and Martin Odegaard don’t become elite in their own rights, while the defensive minded likes of Sander Berge and Kristoffer Ajer may be a few rungs down but are physically capable of going to the top of the game.
Two times World cup runners up and 1976 Euro winners Czechoslovakia join forces once more but fail to grab a speaking role in this all-star cast.
Iceland are the darlings of population stats, whilst they don’t feature in this lineup they’ll be in the crowds showing off their famous synchronized noise making trick.
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Marc Andre Ter Stegen GER Barcelona GK Mochengladbach 85 €57.10 27
Manuel Neuer GER Bayern GK Gelsenkirchen 88 €51.20 34
Defenders
Joshua Kimmich GER Bayern RWB Rotweil 80 €53.90 25
Mats Hummels GER Dortmund CB Bergisch Gladbach 83 €62.50 30
Andrew Robertson SCO Liverpool LWB Glasgow 79 €54.40 26
Trent Alexander-Arnold ENG Liverpool RWB Liverpool 80 €61.10 22
Niklas Sule GER Bayern CB Frankfurt 78 €60.10 25
Harry Maguire ENG Man United CB Sheffield 75 €39.00 27
Jerome Boateng GER Bayern CB West Berlin 78 €41.20 32
Milan Skriniar SVK Inter Milan CB Zlar nad Hronom 82 €60.20 25
Midfielders
Raheem Sterling ENG Man City RW Kingston, Jamaica 87 €86.60 26
Toni Kroos GER Real Madrid CM Greifswald 81 €72.30 30
Cristian Eriksen DEN Inter Milan CAM Middelfart 79 €60.90 28
Marco Reus GER Dortmund CAM Dortmund 84 €71.00 30
Leroy Sane GER Man City LW Essen 84 €77.30 24
Jadon Sancho ENG Dortmund RM Camberwell 78 €50.80 20
Thomas Muller GER Bayern CAM Wuilheim 80 €66.70 31
Leon Goretzka GER Bayern CM Bochum 75 €33.40 25
Forwards
Robert Lewandowski POL Bayern ST Warsaw 88 €93.60 32
Harry Kane ENG Tottenham ST London 89 €90.10 26
Timo Werner GER RB Leibzig ST Stuttgart 78 €54.00 24
Gareth Bale WAL Real Madrid RF Cardiff 87 €87.80 31
Average/Totals 82 €1,385.20 27.27
A ridiculous strike-force that begs the question of two up top, Kane and Lewandowski’s play styles may be too similar to gel but leaving one on the bench seems ungrateful. Timo Werner is the more natural second striker while Bale perhaps only makes the side on reputation.
Ever forward-thinking, Germany predicted the grouping in 2017 and chose to develop the world's greatest post-2000 player to date, despite normally batting for the other team. Jadon Sancho hasn’t quite made the mark in an adolescent international career but has his entire 20's ahead of him, the Englishman with all the speed and flare of an Aston Martin, he is positionally and tactically convertible, his meaning his potential has no ceiling. Sancho will most likely contend with Sterling for a spot in the lineup, with an industrious German midfield dominating. Joshua Kimmich holding the obvious way to go.
Liverpool’s wing back pair continue to compete for assists, while solo Slovakian Milan Skriniar should play alongside one of three German centre-halfs. Take your pick from the keepers.
Another contender for the title, not quite as perfect as their western counterparts, but if any team can top them, it might be the region on top of them.
East China
3 Chinese provinces (Henan, Hubei, Shandong)
Population (millions): 242.05
As I near the end, my last supper is a stale Chinese.
Three gargantuan provinces combine to complete the world’s most populous nation. These play home to four teams in the country's top flight, Qingdao Huanghai, Shandong Luneng, Henan Jianye and Wuhan Zall, with Marouane Fellaini the most recognisable name playing in the region, and probably the tallest human around.
China’s greatest goalscorer Hao Haidong was born in Shandong, with Yang Xu approaching his mid-thirties thirteen behind, Hao’s 41 goals for the team in red doesn’t look likely to be beaten anytime soon.
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Guo Quanbo CHN Beijing Guoan GK Hubei 37 €1.00 22
Zeng Cheng CHN Shanghau Shenhua GK Hubei 49 €2.90 33
Defenders
Yu Hai CHN Shanghai SIPG LWB Henan 52 €2.50 33
Yu Dabao CHN Beijing Guoan CB Shandong 51 €3.30 32
Zhang Linpeng CHN Guangzhou E CB Shandong 51 €3.70 31
Jiang Zhipeng CHN Heibe China Fortune LB Shandong 51 €3.60 31
He Guan CHN Shanghai SIPG CB Shandong 50 €3.00 27
Mei Fang CHN Guangzhou E CB Hubei 47 €3.10 31
Zheng Zheng CHN Shandong Luneng LB Shandong 47 €3.00 31
Li Lei CHN Beijing Guoan LB Shandong 46 €3.60 27
Midfielders
Hao Junmin CHN Shandong Luneng CM Hubei 54 €2.70 33
Zhang Xizhe CHN Beijing Guoan CAM Hubei 50 €4.50 29
John Hou Saeter CHN Beijing Guoan CDM Trondheim, Norway 46 €4.40 22
Li Hang CHN Wuhan Zall CM Hubei 46 €2.50 31
Zheng Kaimu CHN Jiangsu Suning CDM Hubei 46 €2.40 28
Zheng Long CHN Dalian Yifang LM Shandong 45 €0.38 32
Wang Yongpo CHN Shenzhen RM Shandong 46 €2.00 33
Pedro Delgado CHN Aves CAM Portimao, Portugal 53 €4.80 23
Forwards
Gao Lin CHN Shenzhen CF Henan 53 €1.50 34
Xiao Zhi CHN Guangzhou R&F ST Henan 46 €0.00 34
Shan Huanhuan CHN Dalian Yifang ST Henan 44 €0.36 21
Gao Xiang CHN Qingdao RF Shandong 43 €2.10 31
Average/Totals 48 €57.34 30
The Wuhan clan of Hao Junmin and Zhang Xizhe share 110 national appearances between them and steer a midfield that although the best of the Chinese teams, will struggle to dictate the play in a strong group.
This aging squad is waiting for a new wave of talent, one of only a few teams to exceed an average age of 30.
Third place a near certainty in this group, but they’ll be looking forward to knocking a few past East India.
So there we go, my work is done, I’m working on collaborating with someone to sim the tournament and will have that ready for you ASAP.
I’ll do some spring cleaning on some mistakes in past posts and try to put some of your lineups in there, until then, thanks so much for reading the series, I’m going to go back to playing miniclip pool infront of the Netflix ‘are you still watching’ screen. Cheers!
submitted by Mel0n_Collie to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.04.20 21:46 Millero15 Introducing Crusader Finns!

Hello there, everyone! I'd like to talk about a mod I've been working on for the past nine months (oh how time flies). Most probably haven't heard about Crusader Finns, so let me do a little introduction to this mod.
Crusader Finns is a post-apocalyptic mod set in Northern Europe, in the surroundings of Finland. This includes Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Karelia, some areas of Russia, parts of Northern Sweden, and parts of Northern Norway. The areas covered is not reflective of the scale of the mod. In the current internal version, there are 854 non-wasteland land provinces, compared to 1761 in vanilla and 1515 in After the End: Fan Fork. Definetely smaller then both of them, but the area of the mod is definitely inflated to an unrealistic scale. Naturally, the main inspiration for this mod was After the End: Fan Fork.
Now I'll show you some screenshots.
Southwestern Finland
Religions!
Many developer diaries have been written so far, 16 of them in fact, but only the DDs from 6 onwards, as well as DD4, actually talk about features of the mod. Keep in mind that many of the older diaries contain much outdated information, as the mod has seen many changes this spring, but they are still worth reading. For example, most of the early lore part of DD6 can be disregarded.
DD4 - First Religions
DD6 - Southwestern Finland
DD7 - Religions, part 2
DD8 - Tech
DD9 - Cultural units and new special units
DD10 - Finnish Lakelands
DD11 - Lapland
DD12 - Ostrobothnia
DD13 - Religions, part 3
DD14 - Misc. stuff
DD15 - Misc. stuff 2
DD16 - Russia
Here is a general summary of the mod in its current state:
Crusader Finns covers the area surrounding post-apocalyptic Finland in great geographic detail. The map is fractured into numerous different areas containing different cultures and religions. Many aspects of Vanilla CK2 have been repurposed and been implemented in a matter fitting to the mod, but there is naturally brand new flavor as well. The start date of the mod is 6 December 2517, exactly 600 years after the Finnish declaration of independence.
Among the religions of Crusader Finns there are Christians of various kinds scattered throughout the map, pagans both new and old, as well as religions formed as a direct consequence of the Apocalypse that made the modern world fall. They are known collectively as Old World religions due to their origin in legends about the pre-apocalyptic world. Right now, the religions vary greatly in terms of flavor. Some religions, such as Karelianism, have gotten much more attention than others.
The cultures of Crusader Finns formed as a result of general cultural divergence and fracturing that followed the Apocalypse. They are largely rooted in old historical and regional differences, some being more ancient than others. What could be thought of as single culture today (Russian, Estonian, Swedish, etc.) are instead culture groups containing many smaller cultures. As Finland is the main focus of the mod, the Finns have been divided into three different culture groups. My aim is to make all cultures and distinct in some way lore-wise.
The offmap power of this mod is the European Empire, collagually known simply as Germany. Despite being the Head Developer of Crusader Finns, I have not personally worked much on this. The European Empire is the work of a fellow CF dev named Galaxion. Additionally, this is all very much work in progress, and may be subject to change. Basically, the European Empire is a loose confederation headed by Germany. Despite being formally a single state, the Emperor's authority is highly limited outside Germany and the Low Countries, which might as well be part of Germany now. France generally acts independently, and Italy is another matter entirely. The Empire has interests in Northern Europe, and the defining aspect of this relationship is the Hanseatic Network, a trade network in the southern parts of the CF map. If you're wondering about most of Russia and Sweden, then you can just forget about them, they might as well be nuked.
The map of Crusader Finns is defined by many things. It is smaller than vanilla or most mods, but still large enough to be fun to play in. When turned sideways, the CF map roughly matches the size of the continental United States in After the End: Fan Fork. In terms of topography, the map is very flat, with the only realm mountains being up in the very north. As many might expect, most of the map is covered by forest, it is a highly forested region after all. Besides that, ther are some plains here and there, as well as farmland and arctic terrain up north. However, there are also some biomes that should not be there. When it comes to water, the waterways in Crusader Finns extend well beyond the seas, such as the Baltic and White seas and the Arctic Ocean. Finland is in particular filled with lakes and rivers which can be navigated to a great extent in Crusader Finns. In this mod, you are never very far from the coast. Like in AtE:FF, there are also many landmarks marked by province modifiers on the map.
This is how extensive the river and lake networks are in CF. See how you can worm your way pretty much anywhere? Those lakes are ocean provinces too, not major river, so you can also sail from there. Also a little showcase of the political map.
That is what I have to say right now. If you're interested, by all means check out the Dev Diaries I posted earlier. You might also want to join the discord server at https://discord.gg/FZ5Ky5P and the woefully inactive subreddit CrusaderFinns . What do you people think about this little mod of mine? Feel free to ask any questions you want.
submitted by Millero15 to AfterTheEndFanFork [link] [comments]


2019.11.30 20:21 Maleegee [DIPLOMACY] Vae Victis The Treaty of Versailles

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY AND JAPAN, these Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, CHINA, CUBA, ECUADOR, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, THE HEDJAZ, HONDURAS, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND URUGUAY, these Powers constituting with the Principal Powers mentioned above the Allied and Associated Powers, of the one part;
And GERMANY of the other part;
BEARING IN MIND that on the request of the Imperial German Government an armistice was granted on 11 November 1918 to Germany by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded with her, and
THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS being equally desirous that the war in which they were successively involved directly or indirectly and which originated in the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on 28 July 1914 against Serbia, the declaration of war by Germany against Russia on 1 August 1914, and against France on 3 August 1914, and in the invasion of Belgium, should be replaced by a firm and durable peace.

Part I. The Covenant of the League of Nations

[M] Being done separately for the sake of expediency

Part II. Boundaries of Germany

The Boundaries of Germany

The boundaries of Germany will be determined as follows:
With Belgium
From the point common to the three frontiers of Belgium, Holland, and Germany and in a southerly direction:
the north-eastern boundary of the former territory of neutral Moresnet then the eastern boundary of the Kreis of Eupen, then the frontier between Belgium and the Kreis of Montjoie, then the northeastern and eastern boundary of the Kreis of Malmedy to its junction with the frontier of Luxemburg.
With the Mandate of Luxembourg
The frontier of 3 August 1914, to its junction with the frontier of France of the 18 July 1870.
With France
The frontier of 18 July 1870, from Luxemburg to Switzerland with the reservations made in Article 48 of Section IV (Saar Basin) of Part III.
With Switzerland
The present frontier
With Austria
The frontier of 3 August 1914, from Switzerland to Czechoslovakia as hereinafter defined.
With Poland
The borders of Germany with Poland will be defined by the Korfanty Map
With Denmark
The frontier as it will be fixed in accordance with Articles 109 to 111 of Part III, Section XII (Schleswig).

Part III. Political Clauses for Europe

Mandate of Posen

The Mandate of Posen will exist under Polish administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether it joins Poland or joins the German state.

Mandate of Masuria

The Mandate of Masuria will exist under Polish administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether it joins Poland or joins East Prussia.

Mandate of West Prussia

The Mandate of West Prussia will exist under Polish administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether it joins Poland or joins the German state.

Mandate of East Prussia

The Mandate of East Prussia will exist under Inter-Allied administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether it becomes an independent nation or joins the German state.

Mandate of Danzig

The Mandate of Danzig will exist under Inter-Allied administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether it becomes an independent nation, joins Poland, or joins East Prussia.

Mandate of Memel

The Mandate of Danzig will exist under Lithuanian administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether it joins East Prussia or joins Lithuania.

Mandate of Schleswig-Holstein

The Mandate of Schleswig-Holstein will exist under joint Inter-Allied and Danish administration for 4 years when a series of referenda will be conducted to determine whether the inhabitants with to join with Denmark, Germany, or become independent.

Mandate of Luxembourg

The Mandate of Luxembourg will exist under Belgian administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether the inhabitants wish to join with Belgium or become independent.

Mandate of Eupen-Malmedy

The Mandate of Eupen-Malmedy will exist under Belgian administration for 4 years when a referendum will be conducted to determine whether the inhabitants wish to join with Belgium or join Germany.

Mandate of the Rhineland

The Mandate of the Rhineland will exist under Inter-Allied administration for 4 years where a referendum will be conducted to determine whether the inhabitants wish to join with France, join Germany, or maintain the present arrangement.

Mandate of the Palatinate-Mainz

The Mandate of the Palatinate-Mainz will exist under Inter-Allied administration for 4 years where a referendum will be conducted to determine whether the inhabitants wish to join with France, join Germany, or maintain the present arrangement.

Mandate of the Saar Basin

The Mandate of the Saar Basin will exist under French administration for 12 years where a referendum will be conducted to determine whether the inhabitants wish to join with France, join Germany, or maintain the present arrangement.

Alsace-Lorraine

The territories which were ceded to Germany in accordance with the Preliminaries of Peace signed at Versailles on 26 February 1871, and the Treaty of Frankfort of 10 May 1871, are restored to French sovereignty as from the date of the Armistice of 11 November 1918. The provisions of the Treaties establishing the delimitation of the frontiers before 1871 shall be restored.
The railway and other bridges across the Rhine now existing within the limits of Alsace-Lorraine shall, as to all their parts and their whole length, be the property of the French State, which shall ensure their upkeep.

Austria

Germany acknowledges and will respect strictly the independence of Austria, within the frontiers which may be fixed in a Treaty between that State and the Principal Allied and Associated Powers; she agrees that this independence shall be inalienable, except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations.

Czecho-Slovak State

Germany, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied and Associated Powers, recognises the complete independence of the Czecho-Slovak State which will include the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians to the south of the Carpathians. Germany hereby recognises the frontiers of this State as determined by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers and the other interested States.
The old frontier as it existed on 3 August 1914, between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire will constitute the frontier between Germany and the Czecho-Slovak State.

Poland

Germany, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied and Associated Powers, recognises the complete independence of Poland, and renounces in her favour all rights and title over the territory bounded by the Baltic Sea, the eastern frontier of Germany as laid down in Article 27 of Part II (Boundaries of Germany).
Poland accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by the said Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of Poland who differ from the majority of the population in race, language, or religion.
Poland further accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the said Powers such provisions as they may deem necessary to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment of the commerce of other nations.

Heligoland

The Mandate of Heligoland will exist under British administration.

Russia and Russian States

Germany acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and inalienable the independence of all the territories which were part of the former Russian Empire on 1 August 1914. In accordance with the provisions of Article 259 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) and Article 292 of Part X (Economic Clauses) Germany accepts definitely the abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaties and of all other treaties, conventions, and agreements entered into by her with the Maximalist Government in Russia. The Allied and Associated Powers formally reserve the rights of Russia to obtain from Germany restitution and reparation based on the principles of the present Treaty.
Germany undertakes to recognise the full force of all treaties or agreements which may be entered into by the Allied and Associated Powers with States now existing or coming into existence in future in the whole or part of the former Empire of Russia as it existed on 1 August 1914, and to recognise the frontiers of any such States as determined therein.

Germany

Germany acknowledges and agrees to respect the territorial and regional independence of the German people, and thereby agrees to respect their political sovereignty within a German nation.
Germany undertakes to dismantle the state of Prussia within a unified Germany, and shall reorganize their nation on a regional basis, with local governments roughly corresponding to the historic regions of Germany prior to the Prussian annexation of large swathes of territory in the 19th Century. The provinces shall roughly correspond to this map.

Part IV. German Rights and Interests outside Germany

German Colonies

Germany renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all her rights and titles over her oversea possessions.
The Government exercising authority over such territories may make such provisions as it thinks fit with reference to the repatriation from them of German nationals and to the conditions upon which German subjects of European origin shall, or shall not, be allowed to reside, hold property, trade or exercise a profession in them.
Germany hereby undertakes to pay, in accordance with the estimate to be presented by the French Government and approved by the Reparation Commission, reparation for damage suffered by French nationals in the Cameroons or the frontier zone by reason of the acts of the German civil and military authorities and of German private individuals during the period from 1 January 1900, to 1 August 1914.
Germany renounces all rights under the Conventions and Agreements with France of 4 November 1911, and 28 September 1912, relating to Equatorial Africa. She undertakes to pay to the French Government, in accordance with the estimate to be presented by that Government and approved by the Reparation Commission, all the deposits, credits, advances, etc., effected by virtue of these instruments in favour of Germany.
Germany undertakes to accept and observe the agreements made or to be made by the Allied and Associated Powers or some of them with any other Power with regard to the trade in arms and spirits, and to the matters dealt with in the General Act of Berlin of 26 February 1885, the General Act of Brussels of 2 July 1890, and the conventions completing or modifying the same.
The native inhabitants of the former German oversea possessions shall be entitled to the diplomatic protection of the Governments exercising authority over those territories.

China

Germany renounces in favour of China all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on 7 September 1901, and from all annexes, notes and documents supplementary thereto. She likewise renounces in favour of China any claim to indemnities accruing thereunder subsequent to 14 March 1917.
From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them respectively:
(1) The Arrangement of 29 August 1902, regarding the new Chinese customs tariff;
(2) The Arrangement of 27 September 1905, regarding Whang-Poo, and the provisional supplementary Arrangement of 4 April 1912.
China, however, will no longer be bound to grant to Germany the advantages or privileges which she allowed Germany under these Arrangements.
Subject to the provisions of Section VIII of this Part, Germany cedes to China all the buildings, wharves and pontoons, barracks, forts, arms and munitions of war, vessels of all kinds, wireless telegraphy installations and other public property belonging to the German Government, which are situated or may be in the German Concessions at Tientsin and Hankow or elsewhere in Chinese territory.
It is understood, however, that premises used as diplomatic or consular residences or offices are not included in the above cession, and, furthermore, that no steps shall be taken by the Chinese Government to dispose of the German public and private property situated within the so-called Legation Quarter at Peking without the consent of the Diplomatic Representatives of the Powers which, on the coming into force of the present Treaty, remain Parties to the Final Protocol of 7 September 1901.
Germany undertakes to restore to China within twelve months from the coming into force of the present Treaty all the astronomical instruments which her troops in 1900–1901 carried away from China, and to defray all expenses which may be incurred in effecting such restoration, including the expenses of dismounting, packing, transporting, insurance and installation in Peking.
Germany agrees to the abrogation of the leases from the Chinese Government under which the German Concessions at Hankow and Tientsin are now held. China, restored to the full exercise of her sovereign rights in the above areas, declares her intention of opening them to international residence and trade. She further declares that the abrogation of the leases under which these concessions are now held shall not affect the property rights of nationals of Allied and Associated Powers who are holders of lots in these concessions.
Germany waives all claims against the Chinese Government or against any Allied or Associated Government arising out of the internment of German nationals in China and their repatriation. She equally renounces all claims arising out of the capture and condemnation of German ships in China, or the liquidation, sequestration or control of German properties, rights and interests in that country since 14 August 1917.
Germany renounces in favour of the Government of His Britannic Majesty the German State property in the British Concession at Shameen at Canton. She renounces in favour of the French and Chinese Governments conjointly the property of the German school situated in the French Concession at Shanghai.

Siam

Germany recognises that all treaties, conventions and agreements between her and Siam, and all rights, title and privileges derived therefrom, including all rights of extraterritorial jurisdiction, terminated as from 22 July 1917.
All goods and property in Siam belonging to the German Empire or to any German State, with the exception of premises used as diplomatic or consular residences or offices, pass ipso facto and without compensation to the Siamese Government. The goods, property and private rights of German nationals in Siam shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.
Germany waives all claims against the Siamese Government on behalf of herself or her nationals arising out of the seizure or condemnation of German ships, the liquidation of German property, or the internment of German nationals in Siam. This provision shall not affect the rights of the parties interested in the proceeds of any such liquidation, which shall be governed by the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Liberia

Germany renounces all rights and privileges arising from the arrangements of 1911 and 1912 regarding Liberia, and particularly the right to nominate a German Receiver of Customs in Liberia. She further renounces all claim to participate in any measures whatsoever which may be adopted for the rehabilitation of Liberia.
Germany recognises that all treaties and arrangements between her and Liberia terminated as from 4 August 1917.

Morocco

Germany renounces all rights, titles and privileges conferred on her by the General Act of Algeciras of 7 April 1906, and by the Franco-German Agreements of 9 February 1909, and 4 November 1911. All treaties, agreements, arrangements and contracts concluded by her with the Sherifian Empire are regarded as abrogated as from 3 August 1914.
In no case can Germany take advantage of these instruments and she undertakes not to intervene in any way in negotiations relating to Morocco which may take place between France and the other Powers.
Germany having recognised the French Protectorate in Morocco, hereby accepts all the consequences of its establishment, and she renounces the regime of the capitulations therein. This renunciation shall take effect as from 3 August 1914.

Egypt

Germany declares that she recognises the Protectorate proclaimed over Egypt by Great Britain on 18 December 1914, and that she renounces the regime of the Capitulations in Egypt.
This renunciation shall take effect as from 4 August 1914.

Turkey and Bulgaria

Germany undertakes to recognise and accept all arrangements which the Allied and Associated Powers may make with Turkey and Bulgaria with reference to any rights, interests and privileges whatever which might be claimed by Germany or her nationals in Turkey and Bulgaria and which are not dealt with in the provisions of the present Treaty.

Shantung

Germany renounces, in favour of Japan, all her rights, title and privileges particularly those concerning the territory of Kiaochow, railways, mines and submarine cableswhich she acquired in virtue of the Treaty concluded by her with China on 6 March 1898, and of all other arrangements relative to the Province of Shantung. All German rights in the Tsingtao–Tsinanfu railway, including its branch lines together with its subsidiary property of all kinds, stations, shops, fixed and rolling stock, mines, plant and material for the exploitation of the mines, are and remain acquired by Japan, together with all rights and privileges attaching thereto. The German State submarine cables from Tsingtao to Shanghai and from Tsingtao to Chefoo, with all the rights, privileges and properties attaching thereto, are similarly acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and encumbrances.
The movable and immovable property owned by the German State in the territory of Kiaochow, as well as all the rights which Germany might claim in consequence of the works or improvements made or of the expenses incurred by her, directly or indirectly, in connection with this territory, are and remain acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and encumbrances.

Part V. Military, Naval and Air Clauses

[M] to be included in part 2

Part VI. Prisoners of War and Graves

[M] Basically, everyone goes home, everyone agrees to respect memorials and graves

Part VII. Penalties

The Allied and Associated Powers publicly arraign William II of Hohenzollern, formerly German Emperor, for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties.
A special tribunal will be constituted to try the accused, thereby assuring him the guarantees essential to the right of defence. It will be composed of five judges, one appointed by each of the following Powers: namely, the United States of America, Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan.
In its decision the tribunal will be guided by the highest motives of international policy, with a view to vindicating the solemn obligations of international undertakings and the validity of international morality. It will be its duty to fix the punishment which it considers should be imposed.
The Allied and Associated Powers will address a request to the Government of the Netherlands for the surrender to them of the ex-Emperor in order that he may be put on trial.
The German Government recognises the right of the Allied and Associated Powers to bring before military tribunals persons accused of having committed acts in violation of the laws and customs of war. Such persons shall, if found guilty, be sentenced to punishments laid down by law. This provision will apply notwithstanding any proceedings or prosecution before a tribunal in Germany or in the territory of her allies.
The German Government shall hand over to the Allied and Associated Powers, or to such one of them as shall so request, all persons accused of having committed an act in violation of the laws and customs of war, who are specified either by name or by the rank, office or employment which they held under the German authorities.
Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of one of the Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before the military tribunals of that Power.
Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of more than one of the Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before military tribunals composed of members of the military tribunals of the Powers concerned.
In every case the accused will be entitled to name his own counsel.

Part VIII. Reparation

[M] As IRL, I don't want to have to write all of this.

Part IX. Financial Clauses

[M] As IRL

Part X. Economic Clauses

[M] As IRL, except for...

Open Germany Commission for Trade

The Open Germany Commission for Trade will be specially charged with the duty of seeing to maintaining the principles of Free Trade in Germany.
The Open Germany Commission for Trade may establish their organisations at the seat of the central German Government.
The Open Germany Commission for Trade will have their duties specifically outlined in a followup treaty proposed by the delegation of the United States

Part XI. Aerial Navigaton

[M] As IRL

Part XII. Ports, Waterways and Railways

[M] As IRL

Part XIII. Labour

[M] as IRL

Part XIV Guarantees

Western Europe

As a guarantee for the execution of the present Treaty by Germany, the German territory situated to the west of the Rhine, together with the bridgeheads, will be occupied by Allied and Associated troops for a period of fifteen years from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
If the conditions of the present Treaty are faithfully carried out by Germany, the occupation referred to in Article 428 will be successively restricted as follows:
(i) At the expiration of five years there will be evacuated: the bridgehead of Cologne and the territories north of a line running along the Ruhr, then along the railway Jülich, Duren, Euskirchen, Rheinbach, thence along the road Rheinbach to Sinzig, and reaching the Rhine at the confluence with the Ahr; the roads, railways and places mentioned above being excluded from the area evacuated.
(ii) At the expiration of ten years there will be evacuated: the bridgehead of Coblenz and the territories north of a line to be drawn from the intersection between the frontiers of Belgium, Germany and Holland, running about from 4 kilometres south of Aix-la-Chapelle, then to and following the crest of Forst Gemünd, then east of the railway of the Urft valley, then along Blankenheim, Valdorf, Dreis, Ulmen to and following the Moselle from Bremm to Nehren, then passing by Kappel and Simmern, then following the ridge of the heights between Simmern and the Rhine and reaching this river at Bacharach; all the places valleys, roads and railways mentioned above being excluded from the area evacuated.
(iii) At the expiration of fifteen years there will be evacuated: the bridgehead of Mainz, the bridgehead of Kehl and the remainder of the German territory under occupation.
If at that date the guarantees against unprovoked aggression by Germany are not considered sufficient by the Allied and Associated Governments, the evacuation of the occupying troops may be delayed to the extent regarded as necessary for the purpose of obtaining the required guarantees.
In case either during the occupation or after the expiration of the fifteen years referred to above the Reparation Commission finds that Germany refuses to observe the whole or part of her obligations under the present Treaty with regard to reparation, the whole or part of the areas specified in the previous Article will be reoccupied immediately by the Allied and Associated forces.
If before the expiration of the period of fifteen years Germany complies with all the undertakings resulting from the present Treaty, the occupying forces will be withdrawn immediately.
All matters relating to the occupation and not provided for by the present Treaty shall be regulated by subsequent agreements, which Germany hereby undertakes to observe.

Eastern Europe

As a guarantee for the execution of the provisions of the present Treaty, by which Germany accepts definitely the abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, and of all treaties, conventions and agreements entered into by her with the Maximalist Government in Russia, and in order to ensure the restoration of peace and good government in the Baltic Provinces and Lithuania, all German troops at present in the said territories shall return to within the frontiers of Germany as soon as the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers shall think the moment suitable, having regard to the internal situation of these territories. These troops shall abstain from all requisitions and seizures and from any other coercive measures, with a view to obtaining supplies intended for Germany, and shall in no way interfere with such measures for national defence as may be adopted by the Provisional Governments of Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
No other German troops shall, pending the evacuation or after the evacuation is complete, be admitted to the said territories.

Part XV Miscellaneous Provisions

Germany undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of Peace and Additional Conventions which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with the Powers who fought on the side of Germany and to recognise whatever dispositions may be made concerning the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and of the Ottoman Empire, and to recognise the new States within their frontiers as there laid down.
The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that they have taken note of the Treaty signed by the Government of the French Republic on 17 July 1918 with His Serene Highness the Prince of Monaco defining the relations between France and the Principality.
The High Contracting Parties agree that, in the absence of a subsequent agreement to the contrary, the Chairman of any Commission established by the present Treaty shall in the event of an equality of votes be entitled to a second vote.
The Allied and Associated Powers agree that where Christian religious missions were being maintained by German societies or persons in territory belonging to them, or of which the government is entrusted to them in accordance with the present Treaty, the property which these missions or missionary societies possessed, including that of trading societies whose profits were devoted to the support of missions, shall continue to be devoted to missionary purposes. In order to ensure the due execution of this undertaking the Allied and Associated Governments will hand over such property to boards of trustees appointed by or approved by the Governments and composed of persons holding the faith of the Mission whose property is involved.
The Allied and Associated Governments, while continuing to maintain full control as to the individuals by whom the Missions are conducted, will safeguard the interests of such Missions.
Germany, taking note of the above undertaking, agrees to accept all arrangements made or to be made by the Allied or Associated Government concerned for carrying on the work of the said missions or trading societies and waives all claims on their behalf.
Without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty, Germany undertakes not to put forward directly or indirectly against any Allied or Associated Power, signatory of the present Treaty, including those which without having declared war, have broken off diplomatic relations with the German Empire, any pecuniary claim based on events which occurred at any time before the coming into force of the present Treaty.
The present stipulation will bar completely and finally all claims of this nature, which will be thenceforward extinguished, whoever may be the parties in interest.
Germany accepts and recognises as valid and binding all decrees and orders concerning German ships and goods and all orders relating to the payment of costs made by any Prize Court of any of the Allied or Associated Powers, and undertakes not to put forward any claim arising out of such decrees or orders on behalf of any German national.
The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to examine in such manner as they may determine all decisions and orders of German Prize Courts, whether affecting the property rights of nationals of those Powers or of neutral Powers. Germany agrees to furnish copies of all the documents constituting the record of the cases, including the decisions and orders made, and to accept and give effect to the recommendations made after such examination of the cases.

Map of Germany

submitted by Maleegee to SWWP [link] [comments]


2019.10.25 03:12 fullbloodedwhitemale Is the death of Europe?

The proliferation of other races dooms our race, my race, irretrievably to extinction in the century to come, if we hold fast to our present moral principles. — Jean Raspail, The Camp of the Saints, 1973
Forty-two years ago, the great French author Jean Raspail wrote a deeply prescient novel. A flotilla of rusty ships packed with beggars sets sail from the Third World. They head for the French Riviera, where a million wretched, brown-skinned people hope to storm the beaches and feed on the wealthy white West. Will the French army fire on the invaders or welcome them as refugees? In the end they do neither; soldiers throw down their weapons and run away as the mob stumbles ashore. Millions more follow, and Europe is snuffed out.
The Camp of the Saints has never gone out of print, and has been translated into all major European languages–and yet the coverage of the European “migrant” crisis goes on as if it had never been written. The masses pouring in from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and a host of African countries are doing exactly what Mr. Raspail predicted they would and, tragically, so are the Europeans.
The underlying problem–and one that cannot be solved–is that whites have built the most pleasant places to live in human history while, with only a few exceptions, everywhere else is a dung heap. In some cases, such as Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya, Western meddling has made things worse, but even without that, hundreds of millions of non-whites in a hundred different countries would move to Europe or America if they could.
And now, they can.
The Camp of the Saints put the white man’s dilemma in the harshest terms: slaughter hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children or face oblivion. The flotilla sets sail confident that Europeans do not have the nerve to kill in order to survive. Today as well, the Third World is crossing the Mediterranean confident that whites don’t have the nerve even to turn them back. Every vagabond who gets a bed in a reception center in Dortmund or Malmö tweets the good news to a hundred people back in Somalia and Syria. They will come in endless waves until they are stopped, and if they are not stopped Europe will die, just as it does in The Camp of the Saints.
📷
What Europeans are doing reflects something deep in their nature, which makes them capable of extraordinary levels of pathological altruism. But the present invasion also has a legal background that dates to the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. It defines a refugee as someone:
[who] owing to [a] well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.
The convention required “non-refoulement,” which means refugees cannot be turned back at the border. It also prohibited countries from applying to refugees the usual punishments for illegal entry. The convention came out of the Second World War, applied only to Europeans, and gave signatories the option of limiting their definition of refugees to people who were displaced “as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951.”
In 1951, the world population was 2.5 billion. It is now 7.3 billion, and the overwhelming bulk of the growth has been in those very countries that are so miserable that huge numbers of their citizens want to leave.
The United States did not sign the convention. What it did sign, in 1968, was a protocol added to the convention, which removed the original geographic and time limits. This meant signatories were required to take in anyone from anywhere forever. Until 1968, however, the United States had no legal obligation to accept any refugees.
Virtually every member of the United Nations has signed both documents–Nauru signed in 2011–but countries like East Timor, Afghanistan, and Zimbabwe have little fear of being called on to fulfill their obligations.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) sets up camps for refugees and does initial screening. Except under crazy circumstances like those in Europe today, countries decide how many refugees they will accept, and dicker with UNHCR over who they will take. The supply is essentially unlimited: Last year, UNHCR said there were more than 50 million displaced people around the world, of whom about 17 million were officially designated as refugees.
Except for the countries right next to the places people are trying to leave, white countries accept by far the most refugees. China completely ignores the “non-refoulement” rule, turning back Burmese tribal people whom the authorities are driving out of the country. In 2014, Japan accepted only 11 out of 5,000 applications for asylum. Mexico, which sends us millions of people, accepts even fewer: It now has a total of 1,677 refugees to Japan’s 2,649. And it’s not as though no one applies to Mexico. Central America has produced plenty of “refugees” but Mexico won’t take them.
Countries just do what they please, because the conventions have no enforcement mechanism. The only price for spurning refugees is accusations of heartlessness, and so long as a country isn’t white, there isn’t much of that.
There has been some clucking about Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the rich Gulf States, which are selective and let Syrians in only on work visas. In fact, they are the most honest players in the game; they haven’t signed the conventions so they don’t have to accept refugees. At the same time, they have spent hundreds of millions of dollars on camps for displaced Syrians in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan. The United Arab Emirates alone have splashed out more than half a billion to house their fellow Muslims. The UN and Western countries have also spent several billion dollars on those camps, where about 3.7 million displaced Syrians have been living safely–though not luxuriously–for years.
And that is what makes this “refugee crisis” not just a calamity for Europe but an absurdity. News reports routinely talk about Syrians “fleeing war and turmoil in the Middle East,” but it’s not as though the Syrian civil war suddenly turned brutal, and shell-shocked families are fleeing war zones with only the clothes on their backs. Many have decided they are just tired of refugee camps–and the ones in Lebanon have cut back somewhat on handouts. Those coming straight from Syria just want a chance at Europe, too. As one 35-year-old woman who brought two young children with her from Aleppo explained at the Hungarian border, “I decided to leave Syria because I want my kids to have a comfortable life, to study.”
In any case, it’s hardly the poor who are making the trip. Smugglers charge as much as $2,000 per adult to ferry people just a couple of miles from Turkey to a Greek island. It takes money to travel on to Germany or Sweden–though some European countries are laying on free travel, food, and shelter. These newcomers are not the needy; they are the greedy.
Finally, this “refugee crisis” is not just an absurdity; it’s absurdity on stilts. Syrians don’t qualify as refugees under the conventions. As noted above, a refugee has to have a well-founded fear of persecution. Being caught in a war zone is not persecution.
A government can choose to treat Syrians as refugees, however, and most European countries have promised them special handling. People are therefore throwing away their identity papers as soon as they get to Europe and are claiming to be Syrian. There is now a brisk market in fake Syrian passports; German authorities have confiscated hundreds of blanks. A Dutch journalist in Syria paid $850 for a very convincing-looking custom-made fake, and they are now offered on the Internet. Syrians have been getting into fights with imposters who, they think, make it harder for real Syrians to register as refugees.
In any case, it is wrong for the press to call these people “migrants,” as if they were Canada geese. Every one of them, wherever he came from, is an illegal immigrant. Israel calls such people “infiltrators.” It would not be incorrect to call them “invaders,” since they are an army of aliens come to occupy and transform Europe.
Liberals are scratching their heads, trying to figure out what set off the current flood. They note that the Syrian war hasn’t gotten worse, and that conditions in Turkish and Jordanian refugee camps are the same as ever.
The answer is simple: Waves of illegals are coming because they can. They saw hundreds of thousands of Africans from such places as Senegal and Nigeria–without even a fantasy claim to being “refugees”–swarming across the Mediterranean from Libya. Not only did the Italian Navy save their lives when their boats sank, it turned them loose on the continent to go wherever the handouts were most generous. Firm treatment early on–towing the boats back where they came from as the Australians do–would have stopped them right away. Instead, Europe foolishly opened the door and is shocked that more have followed.
Germany, especially, has been letting in anyone who wants to come, and people from wrecked countries all over the world know a good thing when they see it. That is why only about one in five of the people pouring into Europe over the last three months is even Syrian. The rest come from South Sudan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Eritrea, and every other hell hole.
Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany made things much worse by announcing that she expects to take in 800,000 waifs this year. Now the government says it could be more like a million. Chancellor Merkel has even been so stupid as to say that “the right to political asylum has no limits on the number of asylum seekers.” Technically, she’s right–the conventions say nothing about limits–but this is an open invitation to every basket-case country everywhere. Here is an interactive graphic from the New York Times that gives a very dramatic sense of what some of these numbers mean.
Chancellor Merkel’s invitation explains why nearly a million illegals have already come to Europe, and countless more are on the way. It explains why 3,000 arrive every day on the tiny Greek Island of Lesbos. And why nearly 4,700 boat people were rescued off the coast of Libya just last Saturday (Sept. 20). And why the crush of “migrants” has so overwhelmed European transport systems that train service had to be stopped between Budapest and Vienna, and between Munich and Salzberg. It explains the mountains of rubbish, food, and feces the “migrants” have left behind wherever the gather.
It explains why we can look forward to such piquant ironies as 75,000 Muslims showing up in Munich just in time for Oktoberfest. Will they spoil the fun for the 6 million locals and tourists who are expected to swallow 1.7 millions of gallons of beer?
Trying to feed, house, clothe, mediate, and teach German to these illegals won’t be cheap, either. Current estimates are that if Germany takes in one million foreigners a year for two years the bill could run to €25 billion ($28 billion). Germany had been running a budget surplus of a few billion a year; it will go back into the red.
The German Economy Minister Sigmar Gabriel, who is Chancellor Merkel’s deputy, has said what may be the most idiotic thing yet: “If we manage to quickly train those that come to us and to get them into work, then we will solve one of our biggest problems for the economic future of our country: the skills shortage.” Germany already has an indigestible mass of Turks who are a recognized scourge, and if Germany needed skilled immigrants it could select them rather than let in masses of whatever shows up.
But Germany is burnishing its credentials as officially post-Nazi. Polls show that a majority of Germans welcome the refugees and can’t get enough international praise. Meanwhile, officials in the German Länder, or states, that have actually have to handle the crowds, worry that they are already stretched to capacity.
The United States, which has so far let in only a couple of thousand Syrians, wants praise, too. Secretary of State John Kerry just announced an increase from 70,000 to 85,000 for next year’s refugee quota, with a goal of 100,000 for 2017. He explained we can’t let in more because it takes time to vet Syrians for terrorism. What does that say about the potential two million Germany could be in for?
The spinelessness of the Europeans is perfectly matched by the arrogance and aggressiveness of the illegals. One might think people who show up without permission in a foreign country would be grateful simply not to be turned back. Not these people. On the Greek islands they fought each other and rioted because they didn’t think they were being treated well enough. On Kos, a tourist mecca, they blocked the main street of the town chanting, “We want papers. We want to eat.” On Lesbos, with 20,000 surly young men camping in streets and squares, locals were afraid to leave their homes or send children to school. “They have stolen our lives,” said one.
Africans in Italian reception centers in Belluno, Sicily, and Rome went on hunger strikes because they were tired of Italian food and wanted African food. The strikers in Belluno slashed the tires of Italians who worked at the center.
At the Serbian/Hungarian frontier, migrants massed at a border fence, chanting “open the door.” They gave the Hungarians two hours to let them in, and then launched human-wave attacks on the fence to try to tear it down. When the Hungarians fired tear gas and water cannons, the illegals threw rocks and sticks at the border police. There was a running battle of several hours before the illegals finally gave up and headed for Croatia.
Rail service from Germany to Austria through the Freilassing border crossing had to be suspended when illegals hit the emergency break to slow down the train so they could jump off. They then walked around the border crossing so they wouldn’t have to show papers. On all the rail routes leading to Germany, thousands of illegals have been sleeping in stations, filling the restrooms and platforms with filth, and cramming themselves onto any train that was passing through, whether they had tickets or not. Mobs at the Keleti railroad station in central Budapest shouted “Fuck you,” and “Allahu Akbar” at Hungarian authorities.
Most of these illegals are young Muslim men who have never seen a woman in a bikini. There have already been reports of women and children being raped in some of the migrant centers, where Muslims consider unaccompanied women “fair game.” Even when they have segregated dormitories, women sleep fully dressed, and are afraid to walk around the centers. So many have been forced into prostitution that a social worker at a Bavarian shelter called it “the biggest brothel in Munich.” It’s no accident that in immigrant-happy Sweden the majority of rapists are immigrants–overwhelmingly Muslim. These are the people Chancellor Merkel’s deputy thinks will make good Germans.
This is what Europe gets for its spinelessness. The illegals sense weakness, and they are right. They exploit that weakness, and their success inspires yet more hundreds of thousands–no doubt millions–from every wretched country. Only force will stop them, the force that any healthy people would have used immediately.
Fortunately, not all of Europe has gone insane. Hungarian Foreign Minister Peter Szijjarto pointed out that if Germany is worried about the plight of Syrians it could use a tiny fraction of the money it has budgeted for “migrants” to improve conditions in the camps in Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon.
Hungary’s Prime Minister, Victor Orban has been the most consistently clear-headed European head of state throughout the crisis. He has warned that Muslims will destroy Europe’s Christian identity and that Europeans have a right to refuse to become minorities on their own continent. His determination to keep illegals out has made him a hero to his people.
Slovakia said it would let in 200 Syrians but they had to be Christians. Interior Minister Ivan Netik explained that Slovakia doesn’t have a single mosque and that Muslims aren’t welcome.
Dutch political leader Geert Wilders has warned of an “Islamic invasion:”
Masses of young men in their twenties with beards singing ‘Allahu Akbar’ (God is greatest) across Europe–it’s an invasion that threatens our prosperity, our security, our culture and identity.
He’s right. Sheikh Muhammad Ayed, speaking at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, encouraged the illegals to pour into Europe and mate with Europeans. “We will breed children with them, because we shall conquer their countries,” he said. “We will trample them underfoot, Allah willing.”
Ironically, it is former Communists, who lived under an overtly anti-religious, anti-nationalist ideology, that are still able to think in terms of national and religious identity. When Chancellor Merkel said she wanted to assign mandatory “refugee” quotas to every EU member, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic refused. Communism protected them from something much worse: “tolerance” and “diversity.”
Perhaps the greatest irony, however, is that emasculated West Europeans are accusing East Europeans of not being European. French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said that Hungary’s efforts to keep out illegals shows it does not “respect Europe’s common values.” It is only because Europeans fought Muslim invaders for 1,000 years–from 732 at the Battle of Poitiers to 1683 at the gates of Vienna–that Europe as we know it even exists. Incredibly, Mr. Fabius wants to throw it all away in the name of what he calls “Europe’s common values.”
Laurent Fabius could have stepped right out of the pages of The Camp of the Saints.
As Jean Raspail wrote in 1985:
[T]he West is empty, even if it has not yet become really aware of it. An extraordinarily inventive civilization, surely the only one capable of meeting the challenges of the third millennium, the West has no soul left.
https://www.amren.com/features/2015/09/is-this-the-death-of-europe/
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2019.05.15 18:44 percythepenguin Improved Giant List of Suggestions

BitLife Suggestions
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2019.03.30 02:50 AdmiralAkbar1 Hitler or Churchill or Holocaust Denialism, or /u/AdmiralAkbar1 takes a Hitler apologia-riddled online quiz to find all the hidden bullshit

A few days ago, I discovered a site called HitlerorChurchill.info, which consisted of a quiz where you determine if a fact or a quote refers to Adolf Hitler or Winston Churchill. I assumed it was just part of the trend of "contrarian pop history," along the lines of Cracked.com, The Oatmeal, Adam Ruins Everything, or Lies My Teacher Told Me: information that is designed to break the Bowdlerized views of historical figures that we were taught in middle school, as well as letting you act really smug about it. While some of them do go over-the-top and substitute one myth for another, the majority of them are still fairly accurate.
At least, that's how it seems at first glance. I'll go through the list and address the questions point-by-point, labeling the correct answer with [Hitler] or [Churchill].
Chancellor of Germany. Led Germany in the fight against the Allies (United Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union) during World War II. [Hitler]
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Led the United Kingdom in the fight against the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) during World War II. [Churchill]
He was born on November 30, 1874 into the aristocracy of his country. [Churchill]
He was born on April 20, 1889 into a working class familly [sic]. [Hitler]
He joined the army and wrote popular books about his military adventures. [Churchill]
He lived as a drifter for 2 years. [Hitler]
Fought for his country in World War 1. He received: The Military Cross, Iron Cross Second Class, Iron Cross First Class, and 6 medals for bravery. He was wounded twice. [Hitler]
He resigned from his appointed position of First Lord of the Admiralty after the failed Gallipoli campaign in 1915-1916. [Churchill]
All of them are somewhat simplified factoids, but so far so good.
He published an article in 1920 that accused Jews of being behind the Communist Revolution in Russia. [Churchill]
Presumably referring to Churchill's editorial "Zionism versus Bolshevism", published in London's Illustrated Sunday Herald on February 8, 1920. While he does paint broad brushstrokes against what he describes as "international Jews" and "terrorist Jews" (and says that Jews had disproportionate influence over the Russian Revolution), he does acknowledge that there are many Jews who are morally upright citizens of their home nations ("national Jews"), and that there are "many non-Jews every whit as bad as the worst of the Jewish revolutionaries" in Russia, Hungary, Germany, etc.'s post-WW1 revolutions. I'm not an expert on the history of anti-Semitism nor will I pretend I am, but from my experience, this seems like a rather nuanced view of the Jewish people as a whole, especially when compared to more virulent anti-Semites from a century ago. while Churchill was definitely an anti-Semite (as were a great many people who were trying to find a group to point the finger at for the Russian Revolution), his anti-Semitism didn't reach the terrifying new heights that Hitler's did (though to be fair, 'being more anti-Semitic than Hitler' is a very high bar to pass).
He published a book in 1925 that, among other things, accused Jews of being behind the Communist Revolution in Russia. [Hitler]
Referring, of course, to Mein Kampf. Hitler has lovely quotes in there about the Russian Revolution, such as, "In Russian Bolshevism we must see the attempt undertaken by the Jews in the twentieth century to achieve world domination." He believed that the entire revolution was orchestrated by Jews as part of a worldwide conspiracy in which every Jew was complicit. Certainly not comparable to Churchill's view on Jews as a whole.
He viewed communism as a poison to Europe and decided his life's purpose was to root out and destroy it. [Hitler]
Though it doesn't mention that Hitler conflated Communism with the Jewish people.
He said that fascism "proved the necessary antidote to the communist poison." [Churchill]
The source of this quote is the New York Times article CHURCHILL EXTOLLS FASCISMO FOR ITALY; He Declares It Has Taught the World the Antidote for Communism, published on January 21, 1927. I can't figure out the context of the quote in the article due to it being behind a paywall. While it is true that Churchill was more sympathetic to fascism than he was to communism, it seems that he always hailed modern democratic liberalism as the ideal form of government, and was opposed to the spread of fascism within Britain itself.
He said that Gandhi: "ought to be lain bound hand and foot at the gates of Delhi, and then trampled on by an enormous elephant with the new Viceroy seated on its back." This colorful commentary may have been a product of his terminal drinking habit. [Churchill]
According to Churchill historian Richard Langworth, the origin of this Gandhi quote have a rather spurious origin.
He said of Mussolini, the leader of fascist Italy: "Roman genius ... the greatest lawgiver among men." [Churchill]
This quote seems to originate from the same 1927 trip as the "necessary antidote" quote given above. The points I made above still apply to this quote.
He was a suporter of eugenics, and introduced the Mental Deficiency Act that required those with mental disabilities to be confined to institutions for the duration of their lives, although he originally wanted sterilization. [Churchill]
The Mental Deficiency Act was passed in 1913, and Churchill supported it as an MP. However, it is important to note that the bill passed where all but 3 out of 670 MPs voted in favor. While his opinion is certainly horrendous by the standards of today, it was a belief that was quite in vogue among many members of society.
In 1934, he passed the law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring, also known as the Sterilization Law. Sterilization laws were also passed in Switzerland in 1928, Denmark in 1929, Norway in 1934, Sweden and Finland in 1935, Estonia in 1936, and Iceland in 1938. [Hitler]
The Law was actually passed in 1933 and went into effect in 1934. It was amended in 1935, that allowed 'High Genetic Courts' to revoke a patient's right to appeal a sentence of enforced sterilization, as well as mandating sterilization for all Afro-German "Rhineland Bastards" (allegedly fathered from German mothers and Afro-French soldiers after World War I). The point also makes no mention of Aktion T4, the Nazi program of enforced euthanasia of the mentally ill that started in 1939.
He frequently blamed Jewish bankers for his country's economic problems, saying they stole and lived off his people like a parasite, buying media to cover their crimes and control the country's politics. [Hitler]
He believed that Jewish artists, academics, filmakers [sic], and theatre owners used their positions of influence to promote moral and cultural decay in the form of pornography, modern art, and sexual deviancy. [Hitler]
These are both pretty undisputed.
He said “In my opinion, the Americans are right in not wanting to make everyone the same but rather in upholding the principle of the ladder. However, every single person must be granted the opportunity to climb up the ladder.” [Hitler]
The quote is from an April 4, 1934 interview with Associated Press journalist Louis Lochner, later transcribed in the Nazi newspaper Völkischer Beobachter (the only link to the full translated article I can find seems to be from some neo-Nazi site, however). The specific context of the quote was Hitler arguing that 'Work for All' (presumably referring to public works like the Autobahn) would lead to rising standards of living for all, before going on to talk about intellectual property rights. I'm not an expert on Nazi economics, but even I can tell that this quote was deliberately removed from context to try and paint Hitler as a benevolent social democrat-type providing a strong safety net to all. Of course, in this case, "all" means "all loyal Germans who support the Party and nobody else."
When he came to power, the unemployment rate was 30%. His country was experiencing massive debt and hyperinflation. 5 years later, his country had a shortage of labor and a stable economy. [Hitler]
"It is not the [country] of the decade that followed the war-broken, dejected and bowed down with a sense of apprehension and impotence. It is now full of hope and confidence...one man has accomplished this miracle...the old trust him; the young idolize him. It is not the admiration accorded to a popular leader. It is the worship of a national hero who has saved his country from utter despondence and degradation...I have never met a happier people" - David Lloyd George, Ex-Prime Minister, UK. To whom was this quote referring to? [Hitler]
Both of these quotes concern the Nazi "economic miracle." Plenty of works (notably Adam Tooze's The Wages of Destruction) go far more in-depth on how the Nazi economy was more or less constantly running on borrowed time and doomed to fail at some point than I could.
He introduced The People's Budget which increased taxes on the wealthy in order to fund social programs. [Churchill]
The People's Budget was passed in 1910 when Churchill was President of the Board of Trade in Parliament. He was one of the bill's primary proponents, along with David Lloyd George (then-Chancellor of the Exchequer).
He helped set up his country's first minimum wage and pensions for the unemployed. [Churchill]
The Trade Boards Act, which created boards that could set minimum wages, was passed in 1909 (around the same time the People's Budget was being debated). This was another law Churchill was a proponent of.
He was behind the National Insurance Act, which provided sickness and unemployment benefits. [Churchill]
The National Insurance Act was in 1911, with Lloyd George and Churchill once again backing it.
The reason these are all included is presumably to establish the idea that Churchill and Hitler were both benevolent social democrats who used their power solely for altruistic reasons.
He outlawed inhumane animal experiments in 1933. [Hitler]
The Reich Animal Protection Act was passed in November of 1933, which banned things such as vivisection and abusing animals for entertainment purposes. However, this ignores the fact that they also banned animal welfare groups that were anti-Nazi, as well as how they were completely okay with vivisection and medical experimentation on living people.
His government was the first to actively campaign against smoking. This man personally funded the Institute for the Struggle Against Tobacco. His country became the first in the world to ban smoking on public transit. [Hitler]
This is true, though part of it was for political or racial reasons (some cigarette companies had Jewish shareholders, and they didn't want Aryans to have genetically defective babies). The program was also a failure, with cigarette consumption continually rising throughout the 1930s.
In 1937 his government enacted the world's first laws which prohibited the sale of alcohol to minors and enacted stiff penalties for drunken driving. They also introducted the first blood tests for automobile drivers suspected of driving drunk. [Hitler]
However, it doesn't mention that the Nazis went way beyond everyone else and allowed alcoholics to be forcibly sterilized by the government (see the above point about sterilization).
Hosted the 1936 Olympic Games. His country came first (89 medals), followed by the United States (56 medals). [Hitler]
Not really a controversial statement by any regards. I wonder why they'd-
Jessie [sic] Owens was an African-American gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games. From Owens' autobiography (The Jessie Owens Story): "When I passed [this man] he arose, waved his hand at me, and I waved back at him. I think the writers showed bad taste in critizing [sic] the man of the hour". Owens also mentions in his autobiography that this man sent him a commemorative photo after the games. Which man was Owens referring to? [Hitler]
Ah.
However, it should be noted that Hitler refused to shake the hands of any Olympic victors because he wanted to only shake the hands of German medalists, while he was told by the IOC that it was all-or-nothing.
He said "Individual Moslems may show splendid qualities, but the influence of the religion paralyzes the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world [...] and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it (Islam) has vainly struggled, the civilization of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilization of ancient Rome." [Churchill]
These quotes seem to be from Churchill's 1899 book The River War. It's important to remember, however, that Churchill was writing for a predominantly imperialist audience at the time, and it was over 40 years before he'd become Prime Minister.
His country signed the Haavara Agreement with Zionist Jews in order to help them move into Israel. [Hitler]
Ah, the Haavara agreement. Classically coupled with the implication that if the Jews didn't leave Germany, they more or less 'had it coming.' The agreement required any Jews moving to British Palestine to forfeit large amounts of their personal assets, and the only significant assets that they could have shipped with them would have to be German-bought. This was deliberately designed to force Jewish emigrants to break the anti-Nazi boycott (which was in response to the Nazis encouraging an anti-Jewish boycott), which inevitably incensed a great many German Jews. OF course, this was all going on as more and more anti-Jewish laws were passed, and the program was frozen entirely in 1939.
In short, this was done less out of the goodness of Hitler's heart (the opposite, in fact) and more to wring every last penny out of Jewish emigrants as they could.
He said "I am, of course, a Zionist, and have been ever since the Balfour Declaration." [Churchill]
This is clearly meant to suggest a kind of equivalence between Hitler and Churchill when it comes to anti-Semitism. Of course, you don't need to be a historian to know just what Hitler ended up doing about the "Jewish question."
In a 1936 broadcast, he said "we will force this war upon [the other man], if he wants it or not". [Churchill]
Once again, this is a quote of dubious provenance. I can't find any dates on this besides "a 1936 broadcast," and most of the sources seem to be unverified or crackpots.
He was accused of invading Austria, despite a referendum where 95% of the people voted to join his country. As a sign of good faith, troops from each country entered the other. Austria's economy quickly recovered from the Great Depression thereafter. [Hitler]
The Germans claimed that 99% of voters supported the Anschluss- while there was definitely popular support, and evidence of vote rigging isn't too widespread, the poll wasn't secret (meaning that there were campaign workers looking at who selected what option). To quote It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, plenty of people likely voted yes "because of the implication."
Infamous for The Night of Broken Glass, an anti-Jewish riot that broke out after a Jew assasinated [sic] one of this man's diplomats. [Hitler]
I'd personally use "pogrom," seeing how thousands of synagogues and Jewish-owned houses were destroyed and tens of thousands of Jews were imprisoned, but yeah. The biggest Nazi justification for the violence was that the Nazi diplomat Ernst von Rath was assassinated in Paris by the Polish Jew Herschel Grynszpan in retaliation for his parents being deported from Germany.
He said: "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble ... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions." He supported the expulsion of 15 million occupied civilians from territories they inhabited which resulted in the deaths of over 2 million people. [Churchill]
While that quote does seem genuine, the numbers seem to be exaggerated, and that the site's creator went with the largest possible number regardless of the most widely-accepted figures. The death toll is estimated to be about 1/4 of what the quiz says.
Responsible for burning literature and art that were deemed undesirable, such as communist literature, pornography, and modern art. [Hitler]
Not an objectionable statement.
Invaded neutral Poland after Poland refused to allow him to build a road through the Danzig Corridor and after his people living in the region faced persecution from the Poles. The Danzig Corridor is a 20-70 mile wide piece of land given to Poland after World War I which ran through the middle of this man's country, splitting it in two. [Hitler]
An objectionable statement. Most, if not all, of the claimed Polish aggression against Germany was either propaganda or false flag attacks in order to justify an invasion.
Accused the other of trying to take over the world at a time when his country controlled the largest empire in history. [Churchill]
Of course, this is trying to make the British look like hypocrites and is basically a rehash of the old German "place in the sun" argument. While the attitude of "You can invade random African countries, but God help you if you start invading European countries" is definitely fucked up, it doesn't change the fact that Hitler was a warmonger.
Promtly [sic] declared war on the other for invading Poland, but did not declare war on the Soviet Union for invading Poland immediately after. Did not declare war on the Soviet Union when they invaded Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, or Estonia thereafter. [Churchill]
That was mostly because Britain and France were still relatively ill-prepared for war, and going to war against both Germany and the Soviets would be suicide. Tragic, but ultimately understandable in the circumstances.
Also, Churchill wasn't PM when that happened.
He said: "I have devouted [sic] no less effort to the achievement of Anglo-German friendship. At no time and in no place have I ever acted contrary to [your] interests...Why should this war in the West be fought?" [Hitler]
This was from a speech made in October of 1939, basically trying to convince the Allies to sue for peace and leave Poland to its fate. This wasn't Germany trying to dissuade a belligerent Britain, this was belligerent Germany trying to convince Britain to stay out of their way.
This man refused numerous peace offers and kept them from the public out of the fear that knowledge of them would discourage neutral countries from getting involved on his side, instead looking for peaceful alternatives. [Churchill]
I have no idea what exactly this is referring to, personally. If you guys have any ideas what specific treaties Churchill privately rejected, please let me know.
Sent his close friend, Rudolf Hess, to parachute into enemy territory carrying an offer of peace in 1941. Hess was arrested and held in solitary confinement during the duration of the war. Hess would later be sentenced to life in prison where he ostensibly committed suicide at age 93.
Hitler didn't send Hess, he went of his own volition and without Hitler's knowledge. Of course, hearing about this seriously pissed Hitler off and basically disowned Hess for it. It's also generally agreed that Hess did commit suicide.
In 1940, while his country was clearly winning, he said "I see no reason why this war must go on. I am grieved to think of the sacrifices which it will claim. I would like to avert them." [Hitler]
Of course you'd try and get a favorable peace treaty while you're winning. Trying to end the war on a high note doesn't change the fact that Hitler still started it.
This man's country invaded neutral Belgium in order to attack France. [Hitler]
This is true.
This man's country invaded neutral Norway in an attempt to cut off iron resources to their enemies. [Churchill]
This is not true.
While the British did start mining the North Sea (including Norwegian territorial waters) to stop Swedish shipping, they didn't actually have any boots on the Ground. The British did plan a counter-invasion, but only in the event that the Germans invaded Norway. The first country to actually invade Norway was Germany, on April 9, 1940.
This man's country invaded neutral Holland for it's strategic location and for collaborating with its enemies. [Hitler]
This is an uncontroversial statement. What's their game with this one?
This man's country invaded neutral Iceland after failing to convince Iceland to join the war with them. [Churchill]
Iceland was technically part of Denmark, which the Nazis had already conquered. It was hardly an 'invasion,' either- there was no military resistance, and the Icelandic government was compensated with some nice trade agreements and monetary payments after they protested about it.
Was the first to begin attacking the other man's country with civilian targetted [sic] bombing raids. [Churchill]
While the British were the first to bomb Germany, the Germans were the first ones to do strategic bombing. In fact, the first air raid of the war was on the Polish town of Wielun by the Luftwaffe, which killed 127 civilians.
His army burned the houses of those expected to be partisans of one particular ideology. [Hitler]
This isn't wrong.
When his armies entered the Ukraine, they were hailed as liberators. Locals would give flowers to his troops as they passed. [Hitler]
While there was Ukrainian collaboration with the Nazis, it was hardly a liberation. When a group of Ukrainian nationalists (including some formerly amenable to the Nazis) proclaimed a new government, the Nazis arrested its leaders and sent them to concentration camps. By the time the Red Army returned, the Ukrainians were welcoming them as liberators too.
600,000 foreigners from 30 different countries volunteered to fight for him. The volunteers were mostly from European countries but also included tens of thousands of Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs. He created special divisions in his army for the foreign volunteers. [Hitler]
From what I can see, this is all true.
Ordered diversion of food away from India in order to feed his troops, which resulted in the 1943 Bengal famine that saw 2,000,000 Indians starve to death. Refused offers from Canada and the United States to ship free food to the starving country. He blamed the Indians themselves for the famine, saying that they "breed like rabbits". [Churchill]
The Bengal Famine is certainly a black mark on Churchill and the British government as a whole, and it was definitely as bad as it was as a result of British military requisitions. However, I can't find any evidence of Churchill refusing to allow foreign aid, and the British government actually did provide substantial humanitarian aid in the crisis's wake (despite waffling on officially declaring a state of famine).
His country betrayed tens of thousands of Croats that had surrendered to them in Austria, resulting in the Bleiburg Massacre.
The British actually halted repatriations of Croat fascist collaborators to Yugoslavia when they heard about the massacres. Also, none of the massacres actually happened in or near Bleiburg.
Infamous for his concentration camps, which acted as prisons for communists, many of whom were Jewish. The camps were also ostensibly used to facilitate the deportation of Jews out of his country.
And this is where it goes from red flags to giant fucking football-field-sized red banners. While many of the early concentration camps within Germany (e.g., Dachau and Buchenwald) were used for imprisoning communists and political dissidents, the vast majority of people who were imprisoned or perished were mostly ethnic Jews, Romani/Sinti, homosexuals, and prisoners of war (especially from the Soviet union).
Also note how it mentions that Jews were "ostensibly deported" instead of, you know, murdered by the million.
The majority of deaths in his country's concentration camps came during the final year of the war, when his country's infrastructure was destroyed, which prevented food and medical supplies from being distributed. [Hitler]
The peak of the death toll was during Operation Reinhard, which ended in November of 1943 and saw over a third of the Holocaust's total Jewish deaths. Furthermore, many of the extermination camps were shut down by 1943-44. This point is basically trying to use the "they all died of typhus" defense for explaining the camps' death toll, while also obliquely blaming it on the allies (suggesting that if they hadn't bombed the infrastructure, the deaths could be averted).
After his country took control of them, the mortality rates in concentration camps increased, due mainly to outbreaks of disease. [Churchill]
The Rheinwiesenlager were operated by the US army, not the British, and they did not use repurposed German concentration camps. Also, the death toll was only around 4,500. James Bacque's claims of hundreds of thousands of deaths is taken seriously by nobody.
He and his allies refused to let the International Red Cross moniter [sic] their prisoner of war camps. [Churchill]
The British actually permitted the Red Cross into their occupation zone a year before the Americans did.
The International Red Cross monitered [sic] his concentration camps and issued a report stating that 271,000 people died in them.
Oh god, the "only 300,000" claim. The Red Cross actually refuted this in a 1975 letter (sorry for the random caption on the bottom), saying that the 300,000 claim only refers to the number of German citizens who perished. The vast majority of Holocaust victims were from Poland, the USSR, and other occupied countries.
The day the war ended, the New York Times published an article by C.L. Sulzberger. The article referenced a Soviet report that accused this man of using gas chambers to kill Jews and that 4 million Jews were killed at Auschwitz. The official Auschwitz death toll has since been reduced to 1 million. [Hitler]
The Soviet (and later communist Polish) governments were the only ones who propagated the claim, which was never taken that seriously by Western historians. The "6 million" figure for the total Jewish death toll of the Holocaust was always based on the far more reasonable estimation that Auschwitz's death toll was 1-1.5 million.
Was accused by the Office of Strategic Services (forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency) of using dead Jews to make shrunken heads, lamp shades, and bars of soap - allegations which are today universally acknowledged as false. [Hitler]
Claims of Nazi lampshades were never taken as little more than rumors by historians, yet still lingered in popular culture. This is typical Holocaust denier fare: take a rumor, suggest that it's fact, then "reveal the truth" and make it weaker. It's like that one photo collage of Nazi soldiers doing mundane things, but obviously photoshopped by deniers into depicting atrocities, then suggesting that the photoshopped versions were from history books.
Supported the Morgenthau Plan, whose premise for long lasting peace was to totally destroy the infrastructure of a country in order to prevent the potential that it could become a military threat. [Churchill]
Churchill actually opposed the plan and only "agreed to consider it" at FDR's insistence. Obviously, the plan was never implemented.
In 1953 he was knighted and won the Nobel Prize. [Churchill]
No objection here.
John F Kennedy wrote of this man's country: "[they] are really too good - that's why people conspire against them". [Hitler]
This was written in 1937, when JFK visited Germany and was swept up in Germany's public facade as an economic miracle that saved the country from communism.
Oddly enough, another JFK diary from 1945 called Winston Churchill his "idol."
Well, that's it. In short, this quiz was a mix of facts, delibate lies of omission by removing context, and straight-up holocaust denialist propaganda designed to suggest that this Hitler guy was just really misunderstood, and I feel worse off for having taken it. While I do think that contrarian pop history does have an important role in provoking public debate on how we view historical figures, this is certainly not the kind that I want.
If I got any details wrong or overlooked something, please don't hesitate to let me know what it is so I can correct it.
submitted by AdmiralAkbar1 to badhistory [link] [comments]


2018.02.05 00:45 an_altar_of_plagues When Death Shall Close Full-Moon Eyes: A Primer on Lithuanian Black Metal

Shortly after attaining their independence following the collapse of the USSR, a collection of three small states on the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea became ground zero for an exceptionally diverse and creative black metal scene that lasted from 1993 to 2002. Members of the extreme metal communities in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia launched themselves into a highly productive decade that incorporated traditional Baltic compositions and historical/pagan themes rooted in Baltic history. They often collaborated with each other, played in each others' bands, and established lasting festivals to celebrate a uniquely Baltic take on metal.
This primer focuses on the largest and arguably the most influential member of this creative explosion - Lithuania. It is divided into four sections. The first is a brief discussion on Lithuanian geography so that references to various cities and features in the rest of the article will make sense. The second describes three main points of Lithuanian history that significantly influence Lithuanian cultural identity and, in turn, the Lithuanian black metal clime. The third section expounds upon Lithuanian culture in the context of black metal. The fourth and final section illustrates various influential and contemporary Lithuanian black metal bands, labels, and noteworthy albums that are best representative of that period.
Lithuanian Geography
Modern Lithuania is the southernmost and largest of the Baltic states, bordering Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the southwest, and the Russian exclave of St. Petersburg. The capital and largest city is Vilnius, which is also the home to the largest amount of heavy metal bands in the Baltic states. Before World War II, Vilnius was notable for having one of the largest Jewish populations in the world, being known as the "Jerusalem of the North" in the time of Napoleon. Its eclectic music scene included the pagan metal of Obtest, the death metal of Conscious Rot, and the neofolk/dark ambient Akys.
One of the main cultural centers of Lithuania is Kaunas, the second-largest city in the country. Officially granted city rights in 1408, Kaunas was the home of the majority of the Lithuanian black metal scene, including Anubi and Nahash. It was nicknamed the "Little Paris of the Interwar" in the early 20th century, and was one of the centers of the USSR occupation of the greater Baltic states area. Kaunas metal bands mostly played black and death metal which contrasted to the cosmopolitan musical scene of Vilnius.
A third notable area in Lithuania is Utena, one of the oldest continually-inhabited regions in the Baltic states. Although Utena proper is primarily known as a small industrial center, the city birthed several black/folk-hybrid bands such as Ha Lela and Zpoan Vtenz that incorporated strong traditional folk elements in their music. Utena County is one of the largest tourism areas in the Baltic states. One-third of the land area is forestland, and the county boasts over one thousand lakes that are popular for water tourism. It is the least populated region in the country.
Lithuanian History
It is impossible to discuss Lithuanian black metal without a brief overview of its national history, as Lithuanian black metal is heavily inspired by the region's cultural and political development. Modern Lithuania is most heavily defined by three significant events: the clash between paganism and Christianity, the rise and fall of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and occupation/rule under the Russian Empire and the subsequent USSR. Please note that this is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of Lithuanian history, and so some historical trends are generalized.
The original Baltic tribes that inhabited historical Lithuania date to at least 2500 B.C. The demonym "Lithuanians" specifically referred to a tribe that lived within what would become Vilnius. Their relative isolation from main trade routes and other developing European communities resulted in the Baltics (and, by extension, the Lithuanians) being the final major pagan population on the European continent. Despite nominally becoming Christian with the establishment of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1253 under king Mindaugas (a prominent figure in modern Lithuanian culture), the Lithuanians retained their pagan heritage, which led to occupation by knights of the Teutonic Order. The Teutonic Order was ostensibly a Christian organization meant to aid pilgrimages, but it frequently acted as a quasi-mercenary group under the principles of defending and establishing Christianity.
The clash between the Teutonic Order and the Lithuanian pagans has been termed an "eternal war" by some historians, especially given the somewhat broad self-rule that Lithuanians enjoyed despite being technically a Duchy loyal to Catholicism. Numerous battles depopulated the southern region, although Christianity eventually overtook Baltic paganism as the chief religion of Lithuania with king Jogaila's conversion to Catholicism in 1385. The defeat of the Teutonic Order in 1410 at Žalgiris practically ended most of the Order's territorial claims in Lithuania. The battle has become a symbol of Lithuanian national pride as the establishment of Lithuania as a prominent actor in European affairs. The Lithuanians' comparatively lateconversion to Christianity (Columbus had already landed in America before the last Lithuanian pagan tribes converted) resulted in Baltic paganism and naturalism being an extensive cultural influence through the Lithuanian population.
Along with conversion to Catholicism, Jogaila also accepted the Polish crown at the Union of Krėva, starting several centuries of close Polish and Lithuanian political and economic relationships. There are several reasons for this union. The most imminent was the expanding Rus empire out of Moscow, which began to threaten Lithuanian lands as the orthodox Russian monarchs claimed the Baltics to belong to Russia. Additionally, Lithuania's previously-mentioned relative isolation from trade routes encouraged it to seek out economic alliances to better integrate with a European subcontinent that was willing to engage with these new Christians. The Poles also saw benefit in aligning with the Lithuanians for means of protection and warfare, as centuries of battles with the Teutonic Order and other incursions had inspired a Lithuanian culture of military prowess that modern minds may not have expected to have existed in the Baltics. Additionally, the comparatively small Polish kingdom saw union with Lithuania as a way to expand the lands available to their people. The Commonwealth incorporated lands now part of modern Belarus and the Ukraine.
The special relationship of Poland and Lithuania was most famously realized with the establishment of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, which immediately resulted in the creation of one of the largest formal nation-states ever to have existed in Eastern Europe. The languishing influence of the Teutonic Order (and by extension Catholicism) in the wake of the Protestant Reformation allowed the Commonwealth to make numerous territorial expansions into eastern Prussia and territories under the Holy Roman Empire. The Commonwealth stimulated a strong cultural exchange between the nations especially in language, as the Lithuanian nobles adopted what they saw as the more refined Polish script - which is one of the reasons why the Baltic countries do not utilize the Cyrillic script. Both nations were economically prosperous for their time upon the expansion of trade networks despite the encroaching Russian empire, and a strong central monarchy under a single democratically-elected king.
This period of relative prosperity lasted for approximately one century. 1655-1660 is known as the "Deluge") in Lithuania, when the Russians and Swedes invaded the Commonwealth and sacked Vilnius. This substantially weakened the monarchy and the Commonwealth's economic status. Nobles retained more power under the parliamentary system of the Seimas, and the ability of a noble to veto political processes with which he did not agree effectively put the Commonwealth's government in political deadlock and civil wars between fiefs. The spread of Lutheranism along eastern Prussia added further political strife, although this also had the effect of furthering use of the Lithuanian language among the populace due to Lutheranism's focus on education and libraries in the region. However, the Commonwealth never recovered after the Deluge, and the Commonwealth was ended and lands partitioned upon capture of Lithuanian lands by Russia and Prussia in 1795.
From 1795 until the fall of the USSR, Lithuania underwent an intense period of Russification that suppressed Lithuanian language, culture, and heritage in an attempt to make the Baltics homogeneously Russian. Revolts by the nobility during the nineteenth century resulted in dissolution of many noble lands and others given to czars, and numerous Lithuanian education centers and churches (notably the Vilnius University in 1832) were closed and burned to make way for Russian schools and Orthodox churches. Russian rule did not permit Lithuanian economic self-development, resulting in Lithuania losing the economic foothold it gained in Europe following establishment of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This also resulted in a strong trend of migration that lasted through the start of the 20th century. This is famously captured in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which depicts the struggles of Lithuanian immigrant Jurgis Rudkus and his family in industrial Chicago.
Although Lithuania was officially captured by the Germans in World War I, the country enjoyed a brief period of independence from 1918 to 1940. However, authoritarian statism affected the Baltics as strongly as it did Germany and the USSR, with a military coup in 1926 that led to fourteen years of authoritarian rule under Antanas Smetona. Lithuania's fate for the next half-century would be decided upon the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentropp pact and Germany's decision that Lithuania would be given to the USSR after World War II. Despite Smetona and the Lithuanian army's attempts to resist Soviet incursions in 1940, Lithuania was successfully invaded by Soviet forces and Smetona fled to Germany, then Switzerland, and finally Cleveland, Ohio in 1941.
World War II inflicted heavy losses on Lithuania as Germany and USSR swapped occupation of the territory several times, with over 40 percent of the country's 1939 population dying between 1940-1953. Following the War, Stalin and the USSR again pursued an intense policy of Russification and disestablishment of Lithuanian cultural identity. A paramilitary group of freedom fighters known as the "Lithuanian partisans" that included former Lithuanian military officers and civilians staged guerrilla warfare in Lithuania's towns for the next decade before the leadership decided to end fighting upon realizing that Western states would not come to their aid. It is not uncommon to hear the phrase that World War II did not end for Lithuania until 1990.
As the USSR slowly opened itself in the latter quarter of the twentieth century (especially with Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost in 1985), Lithuanians began to express themselves culturally with less fear of reprisal, which culminated in the Sąjūdis (or "The Movement") political party led by Vytautas Landsbergis of the Lithuanian Conservatory of Music in the late 1980s. Sąjūdis won Lithuania's first free elections in 1990. In 1991, the USSR attempted to capture Vilnius by force, but were rebuffed by the civilian population and completely withdrew by 1993, formerly ending Soviet occupation. Ironically, the newfound independence of Lithuania was not recognized by countries such as the USA, as they had never recognized the USSR's presence in the country to start.
In contrast to the stereotype of Eastern Europe and the Baltic states as being decrepit and degrading cities with little to offer culturally or economically, Lithuania has made significant strides in betterment and cultural achievements since achieving its independence from the USSR. In 2015, it was 37th in the world according to the Human Development Index - higher than Slovakia, Hungary, Russia, and Montenegro. It is part of the Eurozone, is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, and the European Union - the last of which it became a member in 2004 alongside its Baltic cousins Estonia and Latvia. Lithuania also boasts the highest rate of literacy and completion of secondary education in Europe according to the World Bank and Eurostat.
Resources on Lithuania and Baltic history include The Baltic: A History by Michael North, The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania: Volume 1: The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union 1385-1569 by Robert Frost, The History of the Lithuanian Nation and Its Present National Aspirations by Antanas Jusaitis, and Between Giants: The Battle for the Baltics in World War II by Prit Buttar. An excellent online overview is accessible at True Lithuania.
Black Metal and Lithuanian Culture
Lithuanian cultural and national history has been dominated by foreign influences either subtly as with the adoption of the Polish language and alphabet by the nobles under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or blatantly with two centuries of nigh-uninterrupted Russification and authoritarian subjugation of Lithuanian identity from 1795 to 1990. Lithuanian culture in a post-USSR climate has focused on establishing what it means to be a Lithuanian, such as recapturing past mythologies and speaking the Lithuanian language. In the minds of many Lithuanians, their history was taken from them and their ancestors, and 1990 was the beginning of being uninhibitedly Lithuanian in a way not fully expressed since the sixteenth century.
The idea of Lithuanian self-actualization is metaphorically represented in many of the early Lithuanian black metal bands writing lyrics in Lithuanian. For a country that had been subjugated to extreme cultural suppression, being able to write lyrics in Lithuanian without fear of reprisal from Soviet political authorities was immensely freeing. For many countries, it's no big deal to write lyrics in one's own language - but imagine doing so in a country after centuries of political domination and cultural repression by outside forces, where expressing one's cultural identity could earn a literal life sentence in a labor camp far from home. That eminent threat does not simply disappear from the national psyche upon political independence. One cannot help but wonder about the emotional catharsis that eighteen-year old Martynas Meškauskas must have experienced when he wrote the first words to God's Pantheon for his new band Anubi in 1992, before Russian forces had completely withdrawn from Lithuania.
Music has always been a strong cultural component of Lithuania, as can be seen with Sąjūdis being started and led by a musician. A form of vocal folk music called liaudies daina has had particular influence on Lithuanian non-classical music in the incorporation of wedding, work, and war-historical songs. The two-/three-voiced polyphonic sutartinės and the lamenting raudos are particularly evident in the music of Anubi, who utilized the former in "Folklorinė Daina Apie Mirtį" on 1997's Kai pilnaties akis užmerks mirtis. Valefar provides a black metal interpretation of the lamenting song on Frigus ex Tenebris Venit with "In Memoriam Dead", which was dedicated to Per Yngve Ohlin of Mayhem. Liaudies daina concerning the harvest, festivals, and hunting are also a common theme in black metal, as heard from Ha Lela and Zpoan Vtenz.
The late adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians has made paganism a strong cultural foundation for its population even to this day. As with Scandinavian paganism, some Lithuanians see paganism as a way by which to return to one's cultural roots, even if they may not outwardly practice pagan rituals or express pagan beliefs in a country where Christianity is still a prominent cultural force. For example, one of the first black metal bands in Lithuania was called Poccolus, which refers to the Lithuanian mythological deity of death and darkness named Pikolas (per Lithuanian ethnographer Norbertas Vėlius). Given second-wave black metal's historical antagonism toward Christianity and adoption of pagan themes (in addition to Scandinavia's geographical proximity to the Baltics), it is easy to see how and why Lithuanian black metal became a prominent form of extreme music in the country following independence.
Indeed, Lithuanian pagan black metal vastly outnumbers other styles of black metal. Death/black and black/thrash hybrids are very rare in the Baltic black metal scene, with the only two notable bands being Dissimulation and Luctus - and the latter was founded in Italy. Pagan black metal in Lithuania often incorporates clean singing in addition to the melodic structures of daina. Although traditional folk instruments are lacking in modern releases, bands in the nineties and early noughties (especially Ha Lela) often utilized horns and acoustic guitars that manifest in a volkisch vibe - and may the Lithuanians out there pardon my German.
Most Lithuanian pagan black metal groups operate under Michael Strmiska's "eclectic paganism", in which paganism and historical mythologies are seen as a source of general inspiration and interest, often selecting specific ideas for exploration rather than practice. Ha Lela, Anubi, Valefar, Nahash, and others looked to Lithuanian pagan ideals as artistic elements, with Anubi in particular merging Lithuanian cultural practices concerning death (e.g. the aforementioned lamenting daina) with Egyptian mythology.
Rarely (if ever) does Lithuanian paganism as expressed through black metal cross into "reconstructionist paganism", in which rituals and traditions are actually recovered and practiced. An informant for Agnė Petrusevičiūtė's thesis on Lithuanian "pagan metal culture" stated that the expression of pagan themes within extreme metal is a "form of cultural resistance" against extant dominant cultures. Another informant said since "Christianity is not native here [but] brought by sword and fire", pagan themes in extreme metal express "love for motherhood, their ancestors, and their traditions". Petrusevičiūtė hypothesizes that Lithuanian pagan black metal's intensely nature-centric themes are also a way to express "opposite with modern culture [...] nature to them is something primal" despite "not [being] tied to any specific mythology as are reconstructionist pagans".
A type of liaudies daina known as the "war-historical song" is another prominent theme among Lithuanian black metal bands. The war-historical song is a Lithuanian oral tradition that commemorates or laments historical conflicts through music. It is one of the most consistent aspects of Lithuania's musical tradition, with historical liaudies daina including contemporary songs describing conflicts with the Teutonic Order to liaudies daina composed following the German occupation during World War II, Soviet occupation notwithstanding. This tradition shows itself in a number of Lithuanian bands including Obtest and Angis, whose music often describes thoroughly-researched historical conflicts with a perspective that evokes the glory of war and heroism on the side of the Lithuanian pagans against Christians with questionably-Christian motives. This is especially true in songs like "997" by Obtest that describe pagan Lithuanian's struggle against Central European invaders. "Ledo mūšis" by Angis describes the battle of Karusė, which took place in 1270 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Livonian Order on the frozen Baltic Sea.
As with other European countries, there are a variety of Lithuanian metal festivals that also incorporate other bands in the Baltic area. Kilkim Žaibu is exclusively dedicated to "pagan metal" and black metal within the Baltics, and it has occurred for almost two uninterrupted decades. Mėnuo Juodaragis is an annual August festival dedicated to the greater Baltic culture that incorporates arts, lectures, and music "from traditional Lithuanian folksingers to heavy-metal rockers and performers of electronic and trance music" - per Strmiska.
Those who are interested in further reading may access Agnė Petrusevičiūtė's thesis on Lithuanian pagan/black metal culture here.
Lithuanian Black Metal Bands, Labels, and Albums (1993-2002)
This fourth and final section lists influential and important Lithuanian black metal bands, albums, and labels from 1993-2002. If you immediately scrolled down to here and skipped the rest of the primer, then I implore you to at least read the section "Black Metal and Lithuanian culture", as a solid understanding of Lithuanian black metal music and themes cannot be attained without that context.
Many of these albums may be difficult to find on physical or digital format since they were either produced in limited runs by local labels or were self-released. However, several labels (such as Ledo Takas) have begun to make some of their early releases available for download through Bandcamp, and YouTube channels such as Lithuanian Metal and LithuanianMetalTapes have posted digitized editions of early tapes. The Forgotten Paths zine is an excellent source on the historical and contemporary Baltic black metal scenes. Otherwise, get ready to do some Internet crate-digging.
The 1993-2002 Lithuanian scene may be interpreted as having two distinct groups. The first centers around the city of Kaunas and features eclectic, even progressive black metal tendencies that incorporated various aspects of Lithuanian mythology and beyond. The second group was primarily based in Vilnius and Utena, and they introduced a variety of traditional Lithuanian folk elements with lyrics that primarily focused on Lithuania's military history, especially concerning clashes with Christianity.
The Kaunas Four
Those who have no experience with the Lithuanian or Baltic black metal scenes should begin here. These four - Anubi, Poccolus, Nahash, and Valefar - were primarily centered in the Lithuanian culture center of Kaunas. They closely collaborated with each other, and it was not uncommon for bands to share members (as is the case with Valefar's relationship to Anubi and Nahash). They were most active from 1994-1998, and they incorporated folk influences in the sense of traditional Baltic imagery mythological lyrics rather than instrumentation or composition - see the Vilnius/Utena scene for that.
  • Anubi: Probably the best example of this group and of Baltic black metal as a whole, Anubi was founded in 1992 by Martynas Meškauskas (a.k.a. Lord Ominous). Anubi subverted the Lithuanian black metal tropes before they were even established by incorporating Egyptian mythology with Lithuanian folk and language. The band combined folk melodies with black metal instrumentation in a highly eclectic take on songwriting that became less overtly "black" as their career progressed. Their first demo God's Pantheon (1993) mixed ambient music and raw Norwegian black metal for a strange, experimental milieu. The band expounded upon the dark ambient influence with the haunting melodies and hypnotic repetition found on Mirties Metafora (1995), which anticipated the direction Lord Ominous was to take on the masterful Kai pilnaties akis užmerks mirtis (1997) - from which this primer takes its name. Kai pilnaties... featured straight black metal rippers, dark ambient music, and even jazz. Lord Ominous's vocals swapped between an operatic basso profundo and black metal shrieks. Sadly, the band dissolved in 2002 following Lord Ominous's drowning at the age of 28 in a salmon fishing accident on Lake Michigan, which effectively ended the first period of Lithuanian black metal history. Those who are interested should listen to Kai pilnaties... first, followed by Mirties Metafora.
  • Poccolus: Starting in Kaunas but spending most of their existence in Utena (one of the oldest cities in Lithuania), Poccolus was founded following the split of the extremely short-lived black/thrash band Nemesis (which also birthed Nahash). In contrast to the eclecticism of Anubi, Poccolus featured more traditional black metal elements with a large synthesizer presence comparable to early Emperor. Poccolus's vocal style incorporated a very peculiar style of shrieking that recalls Varg Vikernes on the first Burzum album. Like Anubi, they released only one full-length - the self-titled Poccolus (1996) - before breaking up in 1997. Their demos (1993-1994) were exceptionally lo-fi even for black metal standards; those demos featured a much stronger folk presence than would appear in the full-length. Poccolus briefly reunited in 2009 for the release of the compilation album Ragana, which featured select demo and live tracks from their original nineties run. Frontman Ramūnas Peršonis has since focused on the ambient project Sovijus. Start with the full-length Poccolus; the demos are better viewed as interesting black metal history than they are engaging black metal releases.
  • Nahash: This band's namesake comes from a traditional Christian name for the snake who tempts Eve to eat the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge in the Book of Genesis. Nahash frequently played shows with Anubi. Nahash's music featured a high-pitched rattle akin to that used by Poccolus with crunchy guitars with a wall-of-sound production style. As with their sister bands, Nahash only released one full-length release titled Wellone Aeternitas (1996), which incorporated semi-progressive elements and some haunting dark ambient. Lyrics focused on ideas of darkness and desolation rather than paganism/mythology like Poccolus and Anubi. Nahash went on an extended hiatus after releasing the Daath demo in 2003, which they re-recorded and released under the same name for Drakkar Productions in 2016. Start with Wellone Aeternitas and the darker Nocticula Hecate demo.
  • Valefar: Valefar was comprised of Lord Ominous from Anubi and three members of Nahash, making it a sort of Lithuanian black metal supergroup. Their entire discography consists of the demo Frigus ex Tenebris Venit (1995) and a split with darkwave band Anapilis (2002). Frigus ex Tenebris Venit is an excellent example of now "low-fidelity" does not mean "low quality", and how low-fidelity may stimulate the imagination. The demo extensively utilizes static and tape hiss to evoke a dungeon-esque atmosphere. There are several dirge-like electronic instrumentals that bear some similarities to dungeon synth music. As with Anubi, Valefar broke up following the death of Lord Ominous. Frigus ex Tenebris Venit is highly recommended, especially for fans of Anubi.
Utena/Vilnius and Volkisch Metal
The second group of early Lithuanian black metal groups were primarily centered in Vilnius and Utena. In contrast to the raw and eclectic black metal styles of the Kauna bands (plus Poccolus), these bands were far more influenced by traditional Lithuanian folk instruments and lyrical themes, with prominent usage of themes found in war-historical daina.
  • Obtest: Without a doubt the most commercially successful Lithuanian black metal band and the earliest alongside Anubi, Obtest was founded in 1992 in Vilnius and has continued to release music uninterrupted as of February 2018 - the only band of the 1993-2002 period to claim this honor. Obtest's lyrical themes exclusively focus on Lithuanian paganism with the EP 997 (1998) being entirely dedicated to military conflicts with European Christendom. Their early releases were primarily melodic black metal with some folk elements; since Iš kartos į kartą (2005), they have incorporated power metal. The demo Prieš audrą (1995) and full-lengths Tūkstantmetis (1997) and Auka seniems dievams (2001) are strongly representative of the greater Baltic pagan black metal style.
  • Ha Lela: Founded in 1993 in Utena, Ha Lela is the first of the Lithuanian black metal acts to utilize Lithuanian folk music as their compositional foundation. The band released two demos in 1994 and 1996 (Rauda and Pabudimas), and also participated in a notable 1997 live performance in Riga, Latvia alongside Poccolus and Latvian group Skyforger. Ha Lela featured cleanly-sung backing vocals and traditional Lithuanian musical instruments such as the pipe, the lumzdelis, the kanklės, and the dambrelis. Along with their friends in Zpoan Vtenza, Ha Lela's songs were often "epic" in structure, seeking to evoke the glory of pre-modern Lithuania. As with so many of these bands, He Lela released only one full-length - Pabudimas (1998) - before splitting up.
  • Zpoan Vtenz: Zpoan Vtenz comprised of three ex-members of Ha Lela. I have been unable to identify the circumstances of the relationship between the two bands, but it appears that the bands were on good terms throughout their run. Zpoan Vtenz was headed by Ramunas "Munis" Personis, who was also members of Nemesis, Poccolus, and Nahash. As with Ha Lela, Zpoan Vtenz strongly utilized traditional Lithuanian folk elements with long, war-historical song structures that strongly identified with Lithuania's pagan and pre-Commonwealth history. Recommended listening is their only full-length, Gimę nugalėt (1997).
  • Ugnėlakis: Ugnėlakis is from Vilnius and only released one demo in their short existence from 1997-1999(?). "Ugnėlakis" means "fire-licker", and the group's promotional artwork features them gathered around a hearth. Their self-titled release (1999) is lo-fi pagan black metal like one would find in second-wave Norwegian black metal but with a focus on melody and traditional Lithuanian imagery.
  • Angis: Although located in Kaunas, Angis better fits the Vilnius/Utena scene. It includes members of Poccolus, Anapilis, Luctus, and Xess. Angis began as a death/doom band, but its two demos Prieš aušrą (1998) and Praeities ženklai (2001) are firmly within war-historical pagan black metal alongside Obtest.
Other Bands
These bands have limited notability, did not fit into the geographical or thematic scenes, or are otherwise distinct from the Lithuanian black metal sound.
  • Dissimulation: Founded in 1993, Dissimulation was one of the earliest melodic black metal acts within the Baltic region. Their nineties output includes a rehearsal tape from 1995 and the demo Juodo mėnulio pasveikinta (1997), which resulted in invitations to several local festivals and eventually signing with Ledo Takas Records. Dissimulation then switched their style to a rather mediocre form of black/thrash for their subsequent full-lengths, and as such they are not recommended for those interested in a particularly Lithuanian style of extreme music. However, the Juodo mėnulio pasveikinta demo is certainly recommended, and it is available on the Juodo mėnulio archyvai compilation released by Ledo Takas in 2016 - albeit with scrambled track listing and somewhat unnecessary post-production.
  • Meressin: This group hails from Telšiai, a relatively small town in northwest Lithuania close to the Baltic Sea and the Latvian border. Meressin plays a mix of heavy and black metal. The band was primarily active between 1993 and 2001, after which Meressin experienced a decade of inactivity before releasing a demo in 2011 and a new full-length in 2014. Meressin is notable alongside Nahash for being one of the very few early Lithuanian bands to use the English language in their lyrics instead of Lithuanian. Recommended release is their exceptional first demo Satan, Oro Te, Reo Porta Patere (1995).
  • Šiaurys: Coming toward the end of the initial period of Lithuanian black metal, Šiaurys was founded in 1998 in the small central town of Kaišiadorys. They released three demos from 1998 to 2001, all of which have stylistic (and perhaps coincidental) similarities to the raw Estonian black metal scene. Start with Pilnaties naktimis miške (1999).
  • Akys: Akys ("eyes" in Lithuanian) was an experimental metal project that was briefly active in the mid-90s. Akys was featured on numerous influential Baltic black metal compilations, including the first and third editions of the famous Dark Fire Dancing. One member of the group was Liukas, who was a founding members of Anubi (credited as Thoth). The discography of Akys is limited even within the Lithuanian extreme metal scene, mostly being single tracks featured on compilations. However, the six-track demo Sugelti Juodakmiai (1994) is worth pursuing.
Compilations
There are several compilations of Lithuanian black metal from the 1993-2002 period that present fascinating snapshots of the scene. The most important of these is Dark Fire Dancing, which was a series of four compilations released by Dangus Productions from 1994 to 2001. The first compilation (1994) was a cassette-only release of ten tracks from Akys, Poccolus, Nahash, Anubi, and Wejdas - the last of which was an early neofolk/dungeon synth project. The other three compilations were released in 1996, 1998, and 2001. Of these, the third - Dark Fire Dancing III - is the both the easiest to find and the most comprehensive, consisting of twenty-five tracks from twenty-five different artists in the greater Baltic music scene. The first side is called "Sword Part" and consists of black metal; the second, "Amulet Part" and neofolk/dark ambient.
Latvian label Beverina Productions released a series of compilations called Unto a Long Glory in 1996, 1997, and 1998. These compilations featured fewer artists than the Dark Fire Dancing compilations and incorporated artists from all over Eastern Europe (including Nokturnal Mortum and Thy Repentance) rather than just the Baltics.
Labels
There are two primary labels in the 1993-2002 Lithuanian black metal scene.
Dangus was the first extreme music label in Lithuania with the release of Altorių Šešėly from punk rock group Varnų Vėjas in 1993. The label had the greatest influence on the evolution of Lithuanian black metal, having released two Anubi demos (Mastabos Dvelkamas (1994) and Mirties Metafora (1995)); Meressin's Satan, Oro Te, Reo Portas Patere (1995); the Dark Fire Dancing series; the Poccolus self-titled album (1996), and other releases from Zpoan Vtenz, Ha Lela, Ugnėlakis, and Wejdas. The label continues to be active in extreme metal, although their reissues of early releases have been fairly inconsistent. Dangus's current roster is primarily composed of industrial, rock, and folk artists who are based in the Baltic states.
Ledo Takas was formed in 1996 and released a variety of early demos and full-lengths from the core group of the 1993-2002 scene including Nocticula Hecate and Wellone Aeternitas by Nahash, Frigus ex Tenebris Venit by Valefar, and Auka Seniems Dievams by Obtest. Currently, the label focuses on black/death metal by way of Conscious Rot, Soul Stealer, and Dissimulation in addition to the pagan metal of Obtest. As with Dangus, Ledo Takas has haphazardly reissued their early releases, with very few available on their Bandcamp page.
Closing Words
Owing to its geographical placement between two of Europe's most historically powerful empires, Lithuania has a vibrant cultural history grounded in ideas of self-actualization, naturalism, and war-historical themes. The early Lithuanian black metal scene is typified by its utilization of the Lithuanian language as opposed to Russian or German, and it significantly features Lithuanian traditional elements such as daina, folk instruments, and Baltic mythology. Although the modern scene has lost some of that particularly Lithuanian edge, it remains a strong cultural component of Baltic extreme music and is demonstrative of the Lithuanian people's drive for re-discovering what it means to be Lithuanian in a period of unprecedented political and cultural autonomy.
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2018.01.29 18:13 Rhiannon_Queen I think that the Blair Witch is one of 3 beings

Those being, are steeped in English Folklore. I've recently been listening to Coraline theories. And it's always been my long-held belief that whatever the Blair Witch is, the Beldam is also. I believe this because of how both have portal and entryways that seem ancient.
With that said, both are ancient and both can change the surroundings around them. Especially the scene where Coraline walks around the world to come back to the house, cause she only created what she thought Coraline would be interested in. It reminded me of how they walked, the group in the first movie, in a circle (in theory) to only come back to the log across the creek.
One of three beings I think the Blair Witch is:
a Ragana:
Also known as Ragana (Pronounced: Rah-gay)
Origin: Baltic (Latvia and Lithuania)
Ragana’s name derives from a root word meaning “horn” or “crescent.” Alternatively her name derives from a root verb meaning “to see.” Ragana is an ancient, pre-Indo-European spirit, a powerful prophetess who reveals the future. She’s familiar with the past, too: devotion to Ragana dates back to the Neolithic era, the New Stone Age.
Ragana rules over night, winter, birth, death, destruction, rebirth, and regeneration. She is a goddess of fertility, abundance, and menopause, which begins with the touch of her red wand. Ragana the prophetess sees all, knows all, and is all powerful. She is a goddess of death and a master healer who can allegedly cure any illness or ailment.
Ragana can bless or curse. She controls fertility and the milk supply of women and animals. She causes and cures infertility and impotence. Ragana controls weather, raising and allaying storms, and wind. She is the guardian of nature’s cycles: creation, growth, decline, and destruction. Ragana may be understood as a spirit of balance. Even her negative powers may be understood as a blessing. Ragana halts the sun’s ascent after the Summer Solstice. What would happen if the sun’s power was left unchecked? If after the Summer Solstice, the sun’s power only increased?
In modern Latvia and Lithuania, the word ragana literally means “witch” (and not in the most positive sense of that word!). According to Lithuanian folklore, witches fly off to hilltops to rendezvous with Ragana on her holy night, the Winter Solstice.
Ragana cuts ice holes in frozen lakes to bathe in icy water. Ragana rarely walks. She flies by transforming into a bird or riding a stick, branch, or tree stump. Ragana is a seer. She doesn’t necessarily wish to be seen. Woe to men who surprise her and her handmaidens, especially if caught bathing, dancing, cavorting, celebrating, or otherwise in ritual. First Ragana and Raganas devour men sexually; then they literally devour them. (This myth of Ragana raises questions regarding the true identity of the hounds who consumed Actaeon after he interrupted Artemis and her Nymphs bathing.)
Ragana was demonized long before the arrival of Christianity in the region. Venerated prior to the arrival of Indo-Europeans, she was never assimilated or incorporated into their pantheon in which male deities like Perkunas play dominant roles. Pre-Indo-European goddesses were assimilated by marriage to these deities. Ragana, apparently not ideal wife material, was not married to any of them. Author Vilija Vyté in the book Of Gods and Holidays: The Baltic Heritage describes Ragana as the “patriarchy’s nightmare.”
Following the arrival of Christianity, her image only got worse: Ragana was demoted to a witch who allegedly brings misfortune to humans and animals, a warning perhaps intended to make devotees stop venerating her. Fairy tales often portray Ragana as grotesque. Stories simultaneously celebrate and warn against her. Like her Russian soul sister, Baba Yaga, Ragana may be portrayed as a cannibal, yet her spiritual appeal and hold remain powerful. Ragana is invoked in positive and malevolent magic. Spells and incantations attempt to focus (or redirect!) her legendary destructive powers against the spell caster’s enemies. She is an increasingly popular Neo-Pagan goddess.
Favored people: Witches, menopausal women
Manifestation: Ragana may manifest as a beautiful woman, bird, fish, hedgehog, poison toad or snake, sow, female dog, goat, or some nightmare creature.
Attributes: Broadsword, chalice, comb, red magic wand
Animals: Goat, hedgehog, mare, venomous snakes and toads
Birds: Crow, magpie, owl
Fish: Carp, pike
Colors: Red, white
Planet: Crescent moon (horned moon)
Number: 3
Tree: Birch
Plants: Ragana’s power manifests in plants that heal, poison, or kill.
Time: Winter Solstice and Summer Solstice— at the peak of Saulé’s power, Ragana begins the waning of the year: it is Ragana’s moment of glory, too.
Offerings: Ragana is traditionally given the first eggs of spring, a hunter’s first catch in spring, butter, cheese, hair, sheep’s wool, and menstrual blood.
See also: Baba Yaga; Ezili; Laumès; Perkunas; Pomba Gira; Saulé and the Glossary entry for Pantheon.
a Black Annis:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Black Annis (also known as Black Agnes or Black Anna) is a bogeyman figure in English folklore. She is imagined as a blue-faced hag or witch with iron claws and a taste for human flesh (especially children).[1] She is said to haunt the countryside of Leicestershire, living in a cave in the Dane Hills with a great oak tree at the entrance.[1][2]
She is said to venture out at night looking for unsuspecting children and lambs to eat, then tanning their skins by hanging them on a tree before wearing them around her waist.[2][3] She would reach inside houses to snatch people. Legend has it that she used her iron claws to dig her cave out of the side of a sandstone cliff, making herself a home there which is known as Black Annis' Bower. The legend led to parents warning their children that Black Annis would get them if they did not behave.[1][2] She was also known to hide in the branches of her oak tree waiting to leap upon unsuspecting prey.[1][4]
Other traditions stated that when she ground her teeth people could hear her, giving them time to bolt their doors and keep away from the window. It is said that cottages in Leicestershire were purposely built with small windows so that Black Annis could only get a single arm inside. When she howled she could be heard five miles away, then the cottagers would fasten skins across the window and place protective herbs above it to keep themselves safe.[1][Note 1]
Puka:
"Pooka" redirects here. For other uses, see Pooka (disambiguation). The púca (Irish for spirit/ghost), pooka, phouka, phooka, phooca, puca or púka) is primarily a creature of Celtic folklore.[1] Considered to be bringers both of good and bad fortune, they could either help or hinder rural and marine communities.The Púca can have dark or staunch white fur or hair. The creatures were said to be shape changers which could take the appearance of horses, goats, cats, dogs, and hares. They may also take a human form, which includes various animal features, such as ears or a tail.
The púca has counterparts throughout the Celtic cultures of Northwest Europe. For instance, in Welsh mythology it is named the pwca and in Cornish the Bucca.[2] In the Channel Islands, the pouque were said to be fairies who lived near ancient stones; in Channel Island French a cromlech is referred to as a pouquelée or pouquelay(e); poulpiquet and polpegan are corresponding terms in Brittany.[3][4]
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2017.12.06 01:54 ThatFrenchieGuy Lessons of German Reunification: An Effort Post

While there’s no official date for the fall of the Berlin Wall, late 1989 was a point of turmoil for Europe as on September 11th 1989 Hungary opened itself to Europe on the other side of the Iron Curtain. This quickly posed the question of how to bring the former Soviet state into the European Union and get them up to speed as a western power. Fifteen years later Europe found itself again trying to integrate several former Soviet states as the EU moved to bring in 8 states in Eastern Europe, this time with the lessons learned from the first time they integrated an ex-Soviet state. That being said, many of the lessons learned were either misapplied or not applied at all.
The first place we can look for a comparison between German reunification and Eastern European integration into the EU is the adoption of new currencies. In 1989 both East and West Germany had a currency called the mark (Mark der DDR and Deutchemark respectively), but when both countries were put back together they needed to adopt a common currency. One potential solution was a direct merger taking DDR marks to Deutchemarks at a 1:1 ratio, but that would cause serious issues due to large savings causing a wave of inflation due to the influx of money in the West German system. Another potential would be to take purchasing power into account and make the changeover along those lines, but due to East Germany having about half the labor productivity of West Germany (Bofinger, 1990) that might have an exchange ratio so low that it would price East Germans out of their own market. The solution undertaken was to offer ratios depending on what form of currency was being exchanged. A 1:1 ratio was offered for salaries and savings to 4000 marks, A 2:1 exchange rate was offered for other financial assets, and a 3:1 ratio was offered for assets held by people outside East Germany.
On the surface, this initially seems like a poor idea as West Germany is losing a sizable chunk of money with every exchange. Taking into consideration that East Germany was a borderline failed economy, thinking of the exchange as a form of subsidy suddenly makes it seem like a much better idea. This multiplied the wealth of the former Soviet citizens by a factor of about 7 (taken from the pre-unification unofficial exchange rate) (Dobush, 2015). The initial conversion served to be beneficial for East Germans looking to convert to Western German living standards, but it caused issues with wages. Now that the two currencies were equal in exchange, there was the issue of East German wages being about 40% of the wage for comparable labor in West Germany. This directly caused large swathes of the skilled labor force to leave the East German market for jobs in the west due to higher earning possibilities. On top of that, the shift from a state controlled economic system to capitalism, resulting in large price imbalances as businesses no longer had their prices dictated by the state. For an example of this, common food staples such as potatoes, milk, and sausage rose in price as much as 400%. The two issues combined caused deep economic issues in the east, resulting in a nearly 20% unemployment rate (Munich and Svejnar, 2007). This took over a decade to repair and bring East Germany up to the standard of the rest of the European Union, but even to this day, there’s a disparity where much of the innovation and R&D work of German companies is done in the west, whereas the actual manufacturing is done in the east.
The lessons that should have been taken away from the currency transition struggles are that shocks to the system are bad, and often result in unexpected outcomes. More specifically, subsidies to upgrade the living standard of a country shouldn’t be done through the exchange rate, and a more controlled transition might prevent issues in labor migration and awkward prices. Additionally, labor migration proved to be a much larger issue than anticipated, so measures may need to be taken to control that in the future.
Jump forward to 2004; The European Union made the decision to expand from 15 nations to 25 with the inclusion of Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovenia. Knowing that there would be similar issues due to 8 of the 10 expansion countries being former communist states, the European Union decided to try to implement some of the lessons learned from the unification of Germany with the Eastern Europe currency transition. First among those is that the European Union had much more established procedures for joining the Euro as established in the 1993 Maastricht Treaty. The treaty laid out five provisions that countries had to meet in order to join the Euro (currently article 140 in the Lisbon revision of the EU treaty). This shows a clear understanding of the lessons learned from East Germany joining into West Germany. The five factors were control of inflation rates, governmental budget deficit, debt to GDP ratio, exchange rate stability, and long term interest rate stability.
The fourth aspect of exchange rate stability is the clearest case of learning from mistakes. Directly from the treaty, “the observance of the normal fluctuation margins provided for by the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary System, for at least two years, without devaluing against the euro” (European Union, 2007). This directly solves the German question of at what rate to set the exchange in order to allow the currency transition, as they can look to market pressures. Looking at the case of Slovenia, we can see that Slovenia met exchange rate convergence criterion as of mid-2006, so when they adopted the euro in 2009, the exchange rate would be ~240 Tolar per Euro and there would be minimal price distortion as businesses attempted to rapidly re-price everything (Directorate General 2006). Also smoothing the transition to the Euro is the ERM II agreement. The agreement provides a framework for central bank collaboration and currency transition once all five of the Maastricht criteria are met. Part of this is establishing a pegged exchange rate of the local currency to the Euro long before the actual adoption of the Euro takes place. One of the big provisions for Slovenia that helped to smooth out the potential for price shocks was Slovenia’s policy of having prices listed in both Euros and Tolar for one year prior to adoption. Combined with an aggressive advertising scheme done as a joint project between Slovenia and the EU government, citizens were fully on board with the currency adoption, and the country saw 90% of the population having cash in euro notes on-hand before the formal adoption of the Euro occurred. (EU Press Release, 2007).
Currently, three countries of the 2004 expansion have yet to adopt the Euro. Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic are all still on their own independent floating currencies. The Czech Republic has not yet met the requirements for legal regulation as of 2016, but everything else is within the Maastricht convergence criteria, so they’re expected to be within ERM II by 2018 and the Euro around 2020. Hungary has yet to meet the requirements for Debt to GDP ratio as well as some of the legal requirements for market integration. On top of that, the current Hungarian government leans conservative and has no plans to enter the Euro before 2020 (European Central Bank 2016). Poland provides an odd case. Apart from ERM II membership, Poland meets all of the convergence criteria to join the Euro, but there is currently a lack of popular support for amending their constitution in order to adopt the Euro with 58% convinced that the Euro would be a negative and 56% opposed to adopting the Euro (Eurobarometer 2016). With the growing trend of Euroskepticism as shown by elections putting anti-EU parties in power as well as Brexit, popular support in Poland may take a while to change to a more pro-integration stance.
Returning to the previously discussed issue of labor movement, steps were taken during the 2004 European Union expansion to avoid the massive unemployment problem that Germany experienced in the wake of East German integration. During East/West German unification, the problem for the workforce in the east was twofold. First they had to deal with the issues of their best and brightest leaving for western Germany. From Uhlig 2006, “that in particular the 18-29 year old are leaving East Germany, and that the emigration has accelerated in recent years.” The population in East Germany that had higher lifetime earning potential and nothing substantial tying them down (houses, children, and the like) made the move to the economically more prosperous western side of the unified Germany. This created a deficit of young people in the workforce in east Germany, but also a glut of young workers in west Germany which suppressed wages in that market since the educational systems in both parts of Germany were of comparable quality. Compounding this is issue was the rapid growth in unemployment in eastern Germany. The exact causes are debated, but consensus is that a combination of mismanaged privatization and rapidly rising labor costs due to the 1:1 exchange policy. This directly caused a dramatic rise in the cost of training new labor, the means that firms began to look for people with needed skills whereas the people who would need on the job training remained unemployed. The high cost of labor also causes investment into capital to avoid the need to have as much expensive labor, also increasing unemployment (Merkl and Snower 2008).
At the time of the 2004 expansion of the European Union, the Schengen treaty had been incorporated into European law due to the 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam, so freedom of movement was a key part of what it meant to be a member of the European Union. This means that as new European members, they would have the full rights of any other European citizens. The fix for this was to have a transitional agreement on a country level to try to avoid a massive influx of Eastern European workers distorting the national labor market. The most frequent provision was limiting the ability for Eastern European immigrants to work in certain sectors for a “transitional period”. Using France as an example, there was a policy put in place that allowed students, researchers, service providers, and the self-employed to work freely, while wage laborers had restrictions on working in France. Another example case is Italy setting a 20,000 worker limit from the 8 countries of the 2004 expansion (Euractiv.com 2007). While the intent of these policies was to protect the national labor markets of the countries implementing them, they served the dual purpose of also preventing an exodus of workers from Eastern Europe to Western Europe, and the resulting unemployment crisis that would ensue. We can confirm this by look at unemployment metrics in both East Germany and Eastern Europe. By 1994, East Germany had an unemployment rate closing in on 20% that to date has still not come down to the unemployment levels of West Germany. Looking at Cyprus’ unemployment rate in the wake of joining the European Union and Eurozone, we see a rise from 4% to 6% unemployed over the span of 2004 to 2007. While it’s hard to pin down the exact causes of the rise in unemployment, even if we attribute the entire rise to issues stemming from economic integration with the European Union, things clearly went far better than they did in East Germany.
Another major change that occurred between the Berlin Wall falling and the 2004 expansion of the European Union is the improvement of utilization of structural funds. While several of the structural funds existed at the time, there was a lot of growth in fund action and availability since 1991. The 1985 reforms to the European Regional Development Fund gave it a larger focus on declining industrial regions, but the fund didn’t consider East Germany to be one of the problem regions. Looking at the ex-post report for the ERDF’s actions for 1989 to 1999, we can see that all of their infrastructure projects were in the newest members of the European Union. Over that span, there were ten major infrastructure projects, 4 in Spain, 2 in Italy, 2 in Portugal, and one in each Ireland and Greece (European Commission 2012). If we treat the infrastructure construction as a Keynesian stimulus, it could be a way to compensate for the unemployment crisis caused from the currency shock and labor issues, but unfortunately, that was not done and can be considered one of the larger mistakes of German reunification. Looking to what the structural funds actually did for Germany, it was majority grants to länder level agencies, but even the ERDF acknowledges that this is a bad idea. From the national summary of the 1994-1999 policy goals “The main reason for this was the dominantly "sectoralised" implementation of the different Länder-programmes, as the two other Länder-transgressing horizontal operational programmes had in any case been Funds specific programmes (ESF, FIFG). If synergy effects at Länder level had appeared in practice, they could mainly be located in the context of rural development” (European Commission 2012). On top of that, the main goal to drive employment was to try to make East Germany a hub of innovation since that was seen as the hallmark of a successful economy at the time. We can see that 26 years later, the bulk of German research and development is still done in the western parts of the country. While counterfactuals are impossible to prove, it is worth wondering what could have been had the structural funds allocated money to the German federal government to allow for better organization and then allow for projects to be undertaken that could capitalize on what East Germany was already good at (heavy industrial manufacturing and farming) while they made needed reforms to transition to a capitalist system, then attempt to modernize the country rather than trying to do both at the same time.
Structural fund intervention went a lot better during the 2004 expansion of the European Union. Looking at structural fund intervention in Hungary first, we can see that there was a different structure to how funds were given out. Funds were given straight to the projects proposed rather than to province level agencies to do what they saw fit. This meant that the structural fund’s bureaucracy could target their money to where it would do the most good. Additionally, this allowed the structural funds to work towards the pan-EU goals of environmental protection (European Commission 2014). Looking at Lithuania as another case of improved implementation of structural funds, rather than the East German case of trying to make them a source of innovation, the goal was instead to make Lithuania competitive in markets in which they participated. This seems to work better as shown by improvements in Tamošiūniene, Šidlauskas, and Trumpaite’s generalized progress index in the wake of the intervention in the Lithuanian market by the ERDF and European Cohesion Fund (Tamošiūniene et al, 2007). The rapid rate of improvement, even when compared to other countries in the 2004 expansion is likely evidence that the structural fund interventions are a way to bring semi-developed markets up to speed quickly and may be useful if there is ever another round of expansion of the European Union.
Also worth discussing with structural fund intervention is that one of the major goals of the European structural funds is investment in human capital. This goes a long way to solve the labor migration issues discussed earlier. One of the major reasons that people left East Germany was the lack of prospects for job advancement through training, but with the emphasis on job training and education access brought by the structural fund targeting.
To conclude, the struggle of expanding the European Union is not solved, and as countries join, new procedures for integrating them into the European community will be tested. German reunification was the first test of bringing in an underdeveloped economy, and it was a good lesson in what not to do. Between the currency shock and massive amount of labor migration the process of reunification gave Germany issues that they’re still trying to deal with today. The most major positive is that it served as a lesson that prevented issues for the re-integration of former Warsaw Pact countries and possibly laid the groundwork for the success of the European Union today.
Works Cited:
Bofinger, P. (1990). The German Monetary Unification (Gmu): Converting Marks to D-Marks. St Louis Federal Reserve, 17-37. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://files.stlouisfed.org/files/htdocs/publications/review/90/07/German_Jul_Aug1990.pdf.
Dobush, G. (2015, July 01). Lessons from the 25th anniversary of Germany’s own rocky fiscal unification. Quartz. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://qz.com/442497/lessons-from-the-25th-anniversary-of-germanys-own-rocky-fiscal-unification/
Euractiv.com (May 2007). EU-25: Member States grapple with the free labour market. Euractiv.com. Retrieved November 12, 2017 from http://www.euractiv.com/section/enlargement/news/eu-25-member-states-grapple-with-the-free-labour-market/
Eurobarometer Polling (April 2016). Introduction of the euro in the member states that have not yet adopted the common currency. Retrieved November 6th 2017 from http://ec.europa.eu/COMMFrontOffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/instruments/FLASH/surveyKy/2105
Euopean Commission (2014). European Cohesion Policy in Hungary. Retrieved 19 November from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgeneinformat/country2009/hu_en.pdf
European Commission (2012). Evaluations of the 1989-1999 programming period. Retrieved 18 November from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/policy/evaluations/ec/1989-1999/#1
European Central Bank (June 2016). 2016 Convergence Report retrieved November 6th 2017 from http://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/conrep/cr201606.en.pdf
European Directorate General (May 2006). 2006 Convergence Report on Slovenia, retrieved October 31st from http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/pages/publication485_en.pdf
EU Press Release (May 2007). Slovenia's changeover to the euro - a clear success, retrieved November 6th from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-07-609_en.htm?locale=en
Merkl, Christian and Snower, Dennis (July 2008). East German Unemployment: The Myth of the Irrelevant Labor Market, retrieved November 8th from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.163.5747&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Munich, Daniel and Svejnar, Jan, Unemployment in East and West Europe (June 2007). , Vol. , pp. -, 2007. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1136642
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, European Union, 13 December 2007, Article 140.
Uhlig, Harald (February 2006), Regional labor markets, network externalities and migration: the case of German reunification. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=895478 on 21 October
Tamošiūniene, Rima , Šidlauskas, Skirmantas & Trumpaite, Ingrida (2007) EU structural support and its impact on Lithuania's progress, Journal of Business Economics and Management, 8:3, 177-187 retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/16111699.2007.9636167?needAccess=true on 19 November
TL;DR German reunification was fucked up because we improvised, Eastern European integration was well planned so it went better
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2013.06.26 18:05 tabledresser [Table] I am an American currently living in Belarus, the "last dictatorship in Europe." ask me anything!

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Date: 2013-06-26
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Questions Answers
What are living conditions for poeple in cities and countryside? Living conditions: It varies. People don't make much money here--but lots of people own apartments (for some reason or another)...so while many people may not be able to afford loads of luxuries, it's rare that the 'homeless' people actually have nowhere to go...And unlike in the States, when you own your home here--you own it, you don't have to keep paying taxes on it until you die.
What about economy? I remember some report about huge devalation in the past few years. Interesting note I remember reading in a locally-published travel magazine about the editor's trip to America...it was a fascinating bit of propaganda in which he stated that the suburban air "constantly smells of fast food" and the typical American work day is 12 hours, 6 days a week (the only rest day being on Monday). This was published in 2010.
Really, constant smell of fast food? Remember the days of selling 'streets paved with gold?' What happened America, you use to be cool... Hey America still cool!
Owning something in the US is a farce. I still can't believe people don't get more upset about property taxes. It really isn't fair to tax your forever on something you have bought once. 150% agree with you. One of the most frustrating things about the states is that Uncle Sam insists on taking a chunk EVERY TIME money changes hands...but I don't want to get started--it will fluster me and I'll have to watch a Pixar film to calm down.
What's the potato situation like over there? About $0.25 a kilo. Certain stores import sweet potatoes from abroad. I eat those.
I'm an American living in Ukraine and the price of those imported sweet potatoes are so fucking expensive. One day I will break down and buy it though. It's totally worth it...do.
What do you like about living there? Chill people? How's the government? I like the Soviet feel of the place...Minsk is probably one of the last big cities you can go to and still "feel" like the Soviet Union is alive and kicking (with some exceptions like McDonald's).
In the spring, summer, and early fall--the weather is pretty nice. A surprising amount of thunderstorms in the summer, which I really enjoy--and otherwise, when the weather is actually warm--it's never too unbearable. Minsk is also a remarkably clean and green city...a lot of big parks and a very admirable bicycle path that stretches across the entire city.
The people: it depends on the generation and the class. Older and poorer people have a lot of Soviet grumpiness happening, whereas younger people who have a bit of money (a growing middle class as a result of the IT and banking spheres), have a more positive live-in-the-moment-and-party sort of attitude.
The government sounds worse than it actually is. If you're politically active--they'll bother you and possibly arrest you if you participate in protests, etc. If you're not--then you really shouldn't have any problems. In some ways it's freer than in America.
Example: No little girl's lemonade stand would ever be forced to shut down because of lack of permits.
Curious: why are you a fan of the Soviet atmosphere? My parents travelled extensively in the USSR and found it pretty bleak, and most people I know who grew up in it would agree. Do you just think it's cool? I might have overstated my zeal when I said I "enjoy" it. I'm fascinated by it. In my younger days I would have thought it's "cool"--but having lived in several countries of the former USSR, I've experienced the bleakness that your 'rents are referring to--and I've seen the damage that the Soviet philosophy did.
But the USSR was a country similar to the USA in many ways (big, pluralistic, with very strong political ideals uniting the people)--but it vastly different as well...I find it very interesting to talk to people who were 'the enemy'--especially older people that really lived through the bulk of the Soviet reign.
I also like to be able to use my Russian on a regular basis.
"Before I went to the USSR, I never thought much of the communists--after I visited, I think even less of them."
Another fun fact: Lee Harvey Oswald lived in Minsk for 3 years before returning back to the States to kill JFK. I currently live on the street he lived on.
I think I know what you mean when you say you enjoy the soviet feel. It feels like you are in some movie where you are transported back in time? Very close to that, yes. It's a novel feeling, that's for sure.
It sounds like you're not very aware of the history or just don't care. Not really. It's just that those things are the most obvious identifiers that set the feel of a city.
Plus--your history book will present a different view, depending on where it was published...and you will also get a different perspective depending on who you talk to. I didn't mean "your" history book--i meant the royal "your." And I was aware you were talking about first-hand experiences...but like I said, they differ so greatly depending on who you were, where you lived, etc. etc.
History books? I'm talking about people who lived in Soviet Russia and Ukraine. "...more interested in the cultural relics..."
I find it fascinating too, just the opposite of enjoyable (back then). I know it's a different world now, but it seems like you're more interested in the cultural relics than the socialist lifestyle itself. Yes, I am. But those are intrinsically intertwined with the soviet socialist lifestyle. I'm trying to paint as clear a picture as possible (for my own interests) of what the USSR was really like. And without exploring those cultural relics, I don't think I'd be able to make any progress with my 'painting'.
Which media are the most critic about the government? That is actually a good question. Everything is state-run here, so you won't find newspapers or TV stations that do it. When you do run into critic/dissident publications, it's typically in the form of websites. Most opposition parties are most active over the web, and in small ways.
Here's a good one: Link to pyx.by
And there's a handful of others, also. But what they can and can't do is pretty restricted and some of the 'opposition' parties are just shams set up by the current regime.
There is also a community of artists and young people that protest in their own ways through their art or film, etc.
EDIT: I can't believe I missed this. The biggest opposition media is: www.charter97.org.
Www.Nn.by www.Gazetaby.com www.belaruspartisan.org.
Restaurants in Minsk are purposely expensive because only tourists eat out at them. They're a tourist trap. It's a simply question with a surprisingly complex answer.
My first reaction is: it's not very true. As with anywhere, there are some places that are way more expensive than they should be--but most of the ones I frequent are more/less affordable...not to eat out every night, but definitely once a week.
It also depends, as the word 'expensive' is such a relative term. Because the rising middle class is still fairly new--there are many people that can't afford to eat out, and by comparison to a grocery store or a little soviet style cafeteria--it's way more expensive. But the people that make a salary of approx. $1,000.00 a month or more will probably go out a couple times a week. But the young people with that kind of salary probably also live with their parents still and so its more affordable for them.
Likewise, you see a lot of people on dates at these restaurants...but guys wine and dine their girls. If you're taking a girl out, at least for the first couple times, you'll go to a place you can't really afford to make the desired impression.
I encountered the soviet-like cafeteria when I was in Poland. I found it fascinating. Yeah--if you're traveling on a budget, they're a cheap way to get a satisfying meal. It may not be the most elegant, but it will do the job.
Has living in a country like Belarus changed your political views at all? A little bit. I lived in Azerbaijan for two years, and as a result (as far as politics go), I have become more/less apathetic. Otherwise I just explode in a fireball of frustration and helpless rage at the injustices I've seen/heard about.
When I first arrived in Minsk, it struck me how remarkably safe it is here as compared to other cities...especially American cities. In most parts of the city, a girl could walk home alone at 2am and not really have anything to fear...that's really not so in the States and it prompted me to ask a question.
If that kind of safety is a result of the ferocity of the regime to maintain control--is it (morally speaking) a country better off than those where tens of thousands are victims of murder and other violence that happens in "free" countries. Whereas the government may imprison or execute a handful of dissidents each year--what about the thousands and thousands who are victims of their own society? It's an interesting question that I was prompted to think about since coming here. That's probably the biggest change in my political views.
I remember someone telling me in the late 80's that they had lived in Spain under Franco and it was just as you say, totally safe pretty much everywhere. As soon as he was gone, crime skyrocketed. It's food for thought. Food for thought...Agreed.
What are the people like? Are they friendly towards Americans/outsiders or do they just get a bad name? Plus can you leave at anytime? The people are kind of cold on the street but hospitable and warm when you get to know them. Also: very rude in general. Whereas Americans, Brits, or Canadians, would be uber uber polite and beat around the bush and be afraid to say no and so on--Belarusians just tell you what they're thinking.
I have not met anyone so far that is unfriendly because I'm an American--though older people are suspicious of foreigners.
I can leave anytime, now. When I was on my student visa, I had to apply for a separate exit visa every time I wanted to leave the country--specifying when and where I was going. It was inconvenient.
What makes you think it is the last one?? Are you aware of what is going on in Russia? I just haven't seen another city quite like it throughout the CIS.
And yes. But Russians protest. Belarusians don't. Also: when the Russians want to make films set in the 50's-ish, they come to Minsk to film.
I had a professor who was born and raised in West Philadelphia Belarus. She has lived in the United States for almost a decade now. She's a writer, specifically a poet. Are you familiar with any Belarusian literature? With a great deal of shame I confess that I'm not. Belarusian is a beautiful language and I wish I had the time to learn it. But as it stands, I am not familiar with any. What is her name, I'll look up some of her work.
What do you not like the most about living there? The winters can get depressing...you leave for work, it's dark--you come home, it's dark.
I don't go out too much in the winter as well, as most of the bars and restaurants are (almost without exception) sodden with cigarette smoke.
There's also, generally, really terrible customer service...that gets irritating. I was once refused service in a small shop because I didn't have one of the baskets. Apparently it is a law here that if you are shopping in a store you must** have one of the store's baskets. Well no one really enforces it, so I had no idea--even having lived here for a year and a half at that point.
So one day I walk into the store, some girl screams at me to take a basket (workers here get this kind of arrogant robotic voice and even the slightest bit of power goes to their heads). Assuming she's just on her typical i'm-pissed-at-the-world attitude, I get angry--and refuse to, because 1. she was uber rude to me, and 2. I was only getting two items. Plus she gave me a bunch of guff about 'putting it in my pockets.'
Long story short, I stand in line--get to the register, and I'm told that they won't let me buy it. I flung the items I was buying at the cashier and stormed out. Still makes me angry to think about.
Edit: I think my frustration with any kind of service worker here can be articulated thusly: In much of the west, if someone can help you with something it's a matter of "why not help?" Here it's more a matter of: "Why should I help?" So...it gets frustrating when someone could** assist you with something but doesn't...and that kind of thing happens a lot (post offices, any kind of government or registration office, stores, etc.)
Of course its also possible that the lady was just a bitch.
How is their education system different/better or worse? I have professor that grew up there and he raves how it fares better than the American education system. It depends on what the education is in. old Soviet methodology was very** big on memorizing things. That said, they've offer really good (and inexpensive) education in math, engineering, sciences, computer programming. The linguistics university here also produces really formidable translators.
A good illustration of this would be in how they conduct examinations. Students will typically get a list of upwards of 30-ish possible examination questions. On exam day, they will come to the professor who is standing at a table laden with index cards turned upside down--each one containing one of the questions. The student randomly picks two of them--and answers those questions. They're often essay format or (in case of linguistics) oral exam questions.
I have many acquaintances who spent weeks memorizing the answer to every question on their list so that they might.
The unfortunate side, though, is if you're dealing with chemistry or other sciences--you'll find yourself lacking in a lot of practice, with a big emphasis on theory. A lot of the universities are not as equipped as they'd like to be...so students learn without getting a big chance (pre-employment) to exercise their skills.
An additional point would be that (and they're improving on this) they're not really taught to think criticially/creatively/outside-the-box. You do what's been proven to work and you keep doing it.
That exam style is pretty common in other European universities as well. Is it? It seems very strange to me. Is it effective?
How are the girls there? Beautiful and generally quite smart. But many come off as vapid because a lot of the male populace thinks that a good woman should not have an opinion about anything.
I concur. Belorussian women (at least those from bigger cities) are really hot and know how to dress, and take care of themselves. Yeah it's a trend out in these parts of the world. But to be honest, it can get dull at times. I prefer a girl to have her own mind about things--if she spends too much time worrying about how she looks, much is lost. Nevertheless--yes, Belarusian women are generally quite attractive.
Are they more approachable compared to Americans? Are they "easier" [no offense]? "easier"--that's only a stereotype, and you'll find that, though girls in clubs and bars might be interested in one-night stands, most girls are looking for the right man.
More approachable: definitely. There is a sort of shyness and awkwardness around American dating rituals--as though the man should, for some reason, be ashamed if he gets rejected by a girl. Here it's not like that--you see a girl you might like, you talk to her, if you hit it off--you go from there, if not--you get on with your life.
All I know about Belarus so far is that they are the biggest reason why the baltic sea is getting overfed because animal farms there don't have to take care of the waste (shit/bad meat) so they just throw it out in the forest. I don't know how to judge levels of pollution. I can breathe just fine, I've never had any noticeable problems with smog or anything like that. Also I don't know anything about the overfeeding of the baltic sea nor how those things affect each other. Sorry i cant bring any more clarity to it.
Sooo... Exactly how clean are the cities, much pollution? How often do garbage trucks pick your trash up, and so on! The city is pretty clean. Every morning at around 5 or 6, there is an army of old ladies with brooms that come out and sweep and clean the streets of trash and excess dirt. I've only actually seen a handful of garbage trucks in action, but they must come often--because our (apartment block's) never piles up for too long before it disappears. Maybe twice or thrice a week?
Thank you for this AMA. Not often people wants to live in a dictatorship voluntarely!
Those old ladies sound magical. Would you recommend ie. me to go to Belarus? I'm actually quite interested and as I live in Europe it isn't that far away. You mean as a tourist or to stay a while? As a tourist: I would recommend it, definitely. There are some kind of cool things to see here and it's definitely worth a week or two to get around the country a bit.
I met a couple of 25-yo Belarusians about 10 years ago who were weirdly obsessed that I was out and gay. When I asked one of them how they treat their gay people in Belarus, he said "We kill them." Chilling, but is it true? Do you know any gay Belarusians? Oh and happy Dead DOMA day!! I don't know any openly gay Belarusians. If only I had my gaydar with me. :)
How famous is mikhail grabovski if at all? (hockey player) He's famous, especially amongst hockey fans. I don't really follow sports and I rarely engage in conversation about them--I have heard the name before, so I am certain he's got his reputation.
What's the common opinion of Russians in Belarus? It seems like after you alls financial crisis in 2011, Russia stepped in to buy out a large share of the energy companies in Belarus as well as bulking up their status as primary trade partner. Russia did buy a lot of the industry in Minsk during the crisis, it's true. They have no need to 'bulk up' their status because there are no other options for Belarus. But the buying of industry is just another way to keep Minsk in Moscow's pocket.
Thoughts on opposition parties - after the last election, most opposition parties seemed to just sit out the election until they become free. Do you see any viable party challenging Lukashenko's rule in the next ten years? I think there might be a chance within the latter half of the next ten years, yes. Some of the parties are growing and the youth are becoming restless--the Slavs seem to be a people who, politically speaking, endure for very long periods of time...and then blow up. I don't think there will be a revolution--but definitely major changes will happen.
You said you have also lived in Azerbaijan. Can I ask you what was your overall impression of Azerbaijan and how different is life in Azerbaijan compared to Belarus? My overall impression of AZ was definitely negative. There are times when I still get angry about it--and I left 4 years ago. The most fundamental difference is the presence of a secularly Muslim culture vs. a secularly Christian culture, where these details make for enormous influences on behavior of the people.
The male chauvinism in Azerbaijani society is significantly more restrictive towards women--to the point where teenage girls have to listen to the orders of their 10 year old brothers...boys, on the other hand, are given freedom to the point that they have no discipline whatsoever and they never mature...you're talking about a nation full almost entirely of men with the social maturity of 16 year old boys...it gets irritating and this was the source of the 98% of my frustration with the country...and it's not even as if they're nice 16-year-olds, but the most douche-baggy, "laugh-at-other's-misfortunes" kind. Makes me really angry even just thinking about it.
The corruption is also exponentially more intense in Azerbaijan--to the degree where police officers just stand on the side of the highway and flag down random cars to extort bribes from them, as just one example. In slang, the word most often used for a bribe is the azerbaijani word for "respect."
They also have a dictator, and IMHO he's far worse than L-, but the US doesn't give him any guff because Azerbaijan is in a geo-politically strategic location and they've got oodles of oil.
West Philadelphia, Belarus, on a playground is where I spent most of my.. juice? Interestingly enough--before I moved abroad this time, I WAS living in West Philadelphia.
I recently talked to a guy from Belarus and he said that you need a special permission to leave the country if you are born there. This was true during the Soviet Union, not anymore. If you're belarusian--you just need a visa to the country of destination.
I don't know how one would acquire such a permission, but I'm assuming money changing hands would do the trick. As a foreigner, it was true for me for a while though--I needed to get exit visas every time I wanted to leave the country for my first year here. It was a pain.
How did you go about the process of getting a Visa and what is your current legal status there? Was it difficult? What about for the other Post-Soviet Bloc countries you lived in? What made you decide to stay there? First Visa: through uni as a student. It was more/less straightforward but a pain in the neck...and pricey.
Second visa: business visa--it was a huge pain as I had to flounder through it more/less myself.
Third and current visa: work visa through my current place of employment. They have lawyerrs that take care of everything for me--it's much easier now.
In addition to Belarus, I have also lived in Russia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan--and visited Ukraine, Lithuania, and Latvia.
I've decided to stay for a number of reasons: the cost of living is cheap and with my current salary, i can pay off my school loans fairly quickly. When I initially decided to stay, I was also in a serious relationship and I made some great friends that I wasn't ready to part with. I joined a good community at a church and kind of started building a life. :)
Big Lebowski reference? Huh. He loves the drink White Russian, right? Belarus = White Russia. Ya know...there's a lot of ins, a lot of outs, a lot of what-have-yous...
How is actual day-to-day life there for an American? Forget Lukashenko and all that stuff (PS, how much longer until his thugs knock on your door after this AMA?) Do you like to chill at a café? Do you like going out to bars? How's the beer? How long do you think you can stay until you decide it's time to escape? Day-to-day life here is just fine. I do go to cafes and restaurants--i'm not a smoker--and i can't stand cigarette smoke, so I usually avoid bars. The beer isn't bad. Some brands have their merits. Personally, I like to pay the extra couple bucks and spring for English beer. I'm currently single. My last girlfriend, we dated for about a year, was stunningly beautiful and bore a remarkable resemblance to Mila Kunis. You won't get a picture, though--because she's no longer my girlfriend. Judging by your 'vested interest' if you're considering marrying/coupling up with/serious relationship with a girl from this part of the world, you can PM me and i'd be happy to give you some tips and advice for a positive outcome longterm. I don't know how long I can stay here, it all depends on a lot of factors. My job is OK right now--but there's other things I want to do. The next serious girlfriend I get, I'm probably going to marry--so if she's from here, then that would play a big role in my decision for 'how long' as well. I can say this about Belarus: if I don't leave the country once every three months, I start to go crazy and get needlessly stressed. Fortunately, Europe is just a short train ride away so I can pop out for a few days when things get stressful...and then the relief is immediate. Last time I went back to the States, I missed Minsk after about 2-3 weeks.
Really important question here. Is Bigz pronounced "Bigs" or "Big Z"? That IS an important question! I call it "Bigs" if it's the mega-grocery store, but "Big Z" if it's the rapper representing the mega-grocery store.
All said, though I prefer prostore--with the accent on the "pro." They make really good sushi there.
So my boss is from belarus and i was just wondering... Hmm...
Do you drink vodka every day starting in the morning? I don't drink vodka every day--but I have drank it in the morning and at some other surprisingly unexpected times. My time in the CIS has taught me to appreciate that drink--and also loathe it.
Are you racist? I think everyone's a little bit racist...sometimes. Right? But generally, I try my best to judge people by who they've shown themselves to be...rather than their skin color. Also--there is a growing number of African students coming here in Belarus--the ones I've met and hung out with don't seem to have too many problems with racism here. But they do stick out like sore thumbs.
Are you worried about radiation? Sometimes I worry about radiation...but only when the wind blows.
Why do you live in Belarus? There are definitely Jews--but not so much "Jewish communities." Like you'd find in, say, New York City.
Also, my grandpa's family was from Minsk and my grandma's family was from Pinsk before they left for the United States as a result of pogroms there at the end of the nineteenth century. Is there still a Jewish population in Minsk or Pinsk? If not, any sort of public acknowledgement of the Jewish communities that used to be there? The vast majority have immigrated to Israel or Western Europe--those that remain are just...Jewish.
What would you say it is like to live in a place like Belarus as a minority, be it a woman or a gay person etc. ? There is an increasingly-outspoken gay community...but generally it's a lot tougher for them here than it is in the States or in Western Europe. But they are gaining courage, though people do not approve of it. And the president has made it very clear that he doesn't like gays. As a woman: It's definitely got chauvenist tendencies, over all. That's not to say that there aren't good guys here, nor is it to say that women are thought to be worthless, but traditional gender roles are much more pronounced here, and husbands sometimes have a tendency to expect their wives to thrive in the kitchen and serve them meals and tea and the like. Disclaimer I am not a woman, so I have to say that I only see a little bit of the way that it actually is for women here.
How are you treated over there, being an American? I remember when I visited Greece my friends and I got stared and often yelled at. Stared at for our clothing maybe? Yelled at for things like ordering food in English (yikes) If I keep my mouth shut, I more/less blend in. When I lived in azerbaijan it was a very different story, because I don't look Azerbaijani. Here, when people find out i'm american they'll try to subtly stare at me or look with curiosity or try to use some English--nothing negative...unless it's the police who realize i'm foreign, then they just like to pick on me cause they're bored.
Also: being an American is really useful when it comes to meeting girls as well. Most of them are not after a green card--but there's an exotic factor that accompanies Western men.
question...why is your handwriting like that of an elementary school kid? I have noticed a lot of american males write exactly like you write. Just curious about this phenomenon. My hand writing is a great source of shame and a product of me incorrectly holding writing utensils for about 20 years...and being left handed.
Do you date the local women? How is the dating scene compared to the USA? The local women: I do date the local women. But I'm a Christian, and so I usually date Christian girls--and the ultimate goal is to get married...so when I date its usually with the intention of a serious relationship. But because I date within the Christian community here, it's a different game altogether: you get to know a girl with friends. If you actually ask her out--then it's pretty much the initiation of a serious relationship, so you should have a degree of certainty as to how much you like her by that time--or risk hurting her. This differs from the states in that usually a first date is more of an interview/assessment.
Also, what are some customs there that you find shocking when compared to the USA? Otherwise--from what i've seen, it seems pretty similar. People go out to clubs, restaurants, bars--meet. When they're younger they hook up, sometimes fall in love, sometimes serious relationships--other times just having fun.
What part of Minsk do you live in? I grew up in Minsk and still visit every now and then, so maybe I'll be lucky enough to run into you some day. I live in the center--near площадь победы (плочща перамогi??). But I'm moving this weekend to логойски тракт near the new library. If you come back, hit me up--we'll get a beer.
Have you had the chance to go out of the city anywhere? Belarus has some of the most beautiful northern forests in the world, if you haven't yet, I highly recommend asking any local friends you have if they'd mind letting you come with for a few days if they go to their дача. I have been to a handful of places outside of Minsk and I did some backpacking around the Braselov lakes and some other places as well--really good times in the forest. Camping is also becoming quite popular amongst the locals.
How have you lived in all of these countries? What's the abridged version of your story? How was it possible to set out and just live in random places, get housing, jobs, etc? In places where you didn't speak the language? Went to university, during uni--studied abroad for a semester in Russia...began learning Russian there. Returned home, gradually continued studying--but very slowly.
After uni: joined the Peace Corps--went to Azerbaijan for two years...hated it, but stuck it out (I shouldn't have stayed as long as I did).
Came back to America for about a year, first job was at a Christian summer camp--then I got a job as a bill collector. Hated my life--wanted to go back abroad so...
I got another opportunity with the Peace Corps--this time for only 3 months in Georgia. I thought "I can handle 3 months for a free plane ticket to europe and some other benefits...then i'll just take my savings go out and fake it til i make it." So that's what I did.
While I was in georgia, I learned about the Russian language program at Minsk State Linguistics Uni--it was so inexpensive, I literally laughed when I learned the price. Thusly I got started in Minsk and went on from there.
By the time I got Minsk I could communicate in Russian--but not as well as I can now.
Last updated: 2013-06-30 15:53 UTC
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2011.12.31 23:23 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (Switzerland vs Slovakia)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Pool A
Switzerland(1-0-1-1) vs Slovakia(1-0-0-2)

Time:

6:00 PM Eastern 5:00 PM Central 4:00 PM Mountain 3:00 PM Pacific

Location:

Scotiabank Saddledome, Calgary, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:Stream: Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, RDS
*I will try to update this with working streams as much as possible. Send me a PM if you have one so I can tell your message apart from all of the post replies.
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Russia 3 0 0 0 9 20 1
Sweden 2 0 1 0 8 22 8
Switzerland 1 1 0 1 4 8 10
Slovakia 1 2 0 0 3 5 13
Latvia 0 4 0 0 0 8 31
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Canada 3 0 0 0 9 23 3
Czech Republic 2 1 0 0 6 12 7
Finland 2 1 0 0 6 15 10
USA 1 2 0 0 3 14 12
Denmark 0 4 0 0 0 6 38
Rosters
Switzerland
Goaltenders
Name BDay Home Team Draft Status
Luca Boltshauser Farjestad Karlstad 2012 Eligible
Lukas Meili GCK Lions Zurich 2012 Eligible
Tim Wolf GCK Lions Zurich 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Eliot Antonietti Geneve-Servette 2012 Eligible
Phil Baltisberger GCK Lions Zurich 2014 Eligible
Cedric Hachler Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Dean Kukan Lulea Hockey 2012 Eligible
Christian Marti Kloten Flyers 2012 Eligible
Kewin Orellana SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Dave Sutter Seattle Thunderbirds,WHL 2012 Eligible
Dario Trutmann Plymouth Whalers,OHL 2012 Eligible
Mike Vermeille Geneve-Servette 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Reto Amstutz SC Bern
Sven Andrighetto Rouyn-Noranda Huskies,QMJHL 2012 Eligible
Sven Bartschi Portland Winterhawks,WHL
Alessio Bertaggia Brandon Wheat Kings,WHL 2012 Eligible
Christoph Bertschy SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Daniele Grassi HC Ambri-Piotta 2012 Eligible
Gaetan Haas EHC Biel 2012 Eligible
Gregory Hofmann HC Ambri-Piotta
Lino Martschini Petersborough Petes,OHL 2012 Eligible
Devin Muller Salmon Arm SilverBacks,BCHL 2012 Eligible
Alban Rexha SCL Tigers 2012 Eligible
Tanner Richard Guelph Storm,OHL 2012 Eligible
Cedric Schneuwly EV Zug 2012 Eligible
Dario Simion HC Lugano 2012 Eligible
Joel Vermin SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Samuel Walser Kloten Flyers 2012 Eligible
Slovakia
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Dominik Riecicky VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Richard Sabol HC '05 Banska Bystrica 2012 Eligible
Juraj Simboch HC Nitra 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Michal Cajkovsky Ottawa 67's (OHL) 2012 Eligible
Adam Janosik Gatineau Olympiques (QMJHL)
Mario Kurali VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Martin Marincin Prince George Cougars (WHL)
Peter Trska VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Matej Bene VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Milos Bubela VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Matus Chovan VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Martin Daloga VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Marko Dano VSR SR 20 2013 Eligible
Vladimir Dolnik Everett Silvertips(WHL) 2012 Eligible
Matej Hindos VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Tomas Jurco Saint John Sea Dogs(QMJHL)
Tomas Matousek VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Richard Mraz VSR SR 20 2012 Eligible
Michal Toman Traverse City North Stars(NAHL) 2012 Eligible
Marek Tvrdon Vancouver Giants(WHL)

Stat Leaders

Stat Switzerland Slovakia
G Joel Vermin 2 Marek Tvrdon
A Dean Kukan 1 Michal Toman
PTS Gaetan Haas 2 Michal Toman
PIM Mike Vermeille 2 Jonas Brodin
SOG Mike Vermeille 8 Tomas Matousek
+/- Joel Vermin +1 Michal Toman

Goalie Breakdown

Player Team Win Loss GAA SO SV% SA
T.Wolf 1 1 3.00 0 .887 53
Lukas Meili 0 0 2.25 0 .943 53
J.Sinboch 1 1 2.00 0 .939 66
D.Riecicky 0 1 9.00 0 .836 55
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
Switzerland
Switzerland will be playing without the experience of Nino Niederreiter who was ruled out of the tournament due to a concussion. A lot will be expected of Calgary draft pick Sven Bärtschi, who will be seen as the new leader of the young Swiss team . Carolina’s 103rd overall draft pick Gregory Hofmann, currently playing for Swiss team Ambri-Piotta, will also be heavily relied upon for the Swiss due to his current form in the NLA.
Slovakia
Slovakia in their 2012 World Juniors medal quest may feel like they are skating uphill on a Red Bull Crashed Ice track with perennial powerful hockey nations Canada, Russia, Sweden, USA and Finland obstructing their path. While their likelihood of seeing semi-final action in Calgary’s Saddledome is highly improbable, with talented players like Tomas Jurco, Marek Tverdon, Martin Marincin and Martin Gernat, they could prove anything but a pushover should a team take them too lightly.

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2011.12.31 01:18 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (Denmark vs Finland)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Pool B
Denmark(0-0-0-3) vs Finland(1-0-0-1)

Time:

8:00 PM Eastern 7:00 PM Central 6:00 PM Mountain 5:00 PM Pacific

Location:

Rexall Place, Edmonton, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:Stream: Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, rds; should work in US
*I will try to update this with working streams
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Russia 3 0 0 0 9 20 1
Sweden 1 0 1 0 5 13 7
Slovakia 1 1 0 0 3 4 4
Switzerland 0 1 0 1 1 3 7
Latvia 0 3 0 0 0 5 26
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Canada 3 0 0 0 9 23 3
Czech Republic 2 1 0 0 6 12 7
Finland 1 1 0 0 3 5 9
USA 1 2 0 0 3 14 12
Denmark 0 3 0 0 0 5 28
Rosters
Denmark
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Sebastian Feuk Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Dennis Jensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Christian Larsen Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Jannik Christensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Tobias Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Emil Kristensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Patrick Madsen Herning Eagles 2012 Eligible
Mark Muller Larsen Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Martin Rahbek Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Thode Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Mathias Bau Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Rasmus Bjerrum Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Patrick Bjorkstrand Herning Blue Fox 2013 Eligible
Mads Eller Frolunda Gothenburg 2013 Eligible
Nicklas Jensen Oshawa Generals,OHL
Nicki Kisum Copenhagen Hockey 2012 Eligible
Joachim Linnet Herning Blue Fox 2012 Eligible
Nicolai Meyer Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Schultz Cedar Rapids RoughRiders,USHL 2012 Eligible
Thomas Sondergaard Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Thomas Spelling HerningBlue Fox 2012 Eligible
Finland
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Sami Aittokallio Ilves Tampere
Christopher Gibson Chicoutimi Sagueneens(QMJHL)
Richard Ullberg SaiPa Lappeenranta 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Jani Hakanpaa Espoo Blues
Miro Hovinen Jokerit Helsinki 2012 Eligible
Olli Maatta London Knights, OHL 2012 Eligible
Konsta Makinen Ilves Tampere 2012 Eligible
Julius Nyqvist HIFK Helsinki 2012 Eligible
Ville Pokka Karpat Oulu 2012 Eligible
Simo-Pekka Riikola KalPa Kuopio 2012 Eligible
Rasmus Ristolainen TPS Turku 2013 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Miro Aaltonen Espoo Blues 2012 Eligible
Joel Armia Assat Pori
Aleksander Barkov Tappara Tampere 2013 Eligible
Joonas Donskoi Karpat Oulu
Markus Granlund HIFK Helsinki
Mikael Granlund HIFK Helsinki
Petteri Halinen JYP Jyvaskyla 2012 Eligible
Roope Hamalainen SaiPa/Jukurit 2012 Eligible
Markus Hannikainen Jokerit Helsinki 2012 Eligible
Mikael Kuronen Ilves Tampere 2012 Eligible
Otto Paajanen HPK Hameenlinna 2012 Eligible
Teemu Pulkkinen Jokerit Helsinki
Alexander Ruuttu Jokerit Helsinki
Miikka Salomaki Karpat Oulu

Stat Leaders

Stat Denmark Finland
G Mathias Bau-Hansenl 2 Joel Armia 2
A Patrick Bjorkstrand 3 Joel Armia 1
PTS Patrick Bjorkstrand 3 Joel Armia 3
PIM Nicolai Meyer 12 Simo-Pekka Riikola 4
SOG Nicklas Jensen 12 Jani Hakanpaa 9
+/- Mathias Bau-Hansen 0 Simo-Pekka Riikola +2

Goalie Breakdown

Player Team Win Loss GAA SO SV% SA
S. Feuk 0 3 9.58 0 .803 122
S.Aittokallio ) 1 0 1.00 0 .976 41
C.Gibson 0 1 8.00 0 .810 42
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
Denmark
Denmark enters the 2012 IIHF WJHC having earned a spot in the main tournament after winning the Division 1 Tournament last year in Slovenia, going 4-0-0-1. Denmark’s Nicolai Meyer, the top scorer at the tournament with 12 points in 5 games, is expected to play in Edmonton. Currently Denmark sits 13th in the world in mens ice hockey. The main goal of this tournament is to avoid relegation and play again next year with the likes of Canada, Russia and the United States.
Finland
Finland could be the biggest surprise of the tournament, in spite of having a very young roster. Talented players currently part of NHL organizations such as Mikael Granlund (drafted 9th overall 2010 by the Minnesota Wild), Teemu Pulkkinen (111th overall 2010 by the Detroit Red Wings) and Joel Armia (16th overall 2011 by the Buffalo Sabres) will look to lead the team to its first medal in the tournament since 2006. This year’s Finnish entry is considered their most talented in years, and presents a very strong chance to end that drought; perhaps even upsetting Canada along the way.
NHL / IIHF Rules Comparison

Thread Notes:

  • Discuss whatever you wish. You can trash talk, but keep it civil.
  • Turning comment sort to 'new' will help you see the newest posts.
  • Try Chrome Refresh or Firefox's ReloadEvery to auto-refresh this tab.
  • Feel free to msg me with any errors or suggestions for future threads. ***
Special thanks to Majupra for adding the IIHF team icons to the sub-reddit.
submitted by seKer82 to hockey [link] [comments]


2011.12.30 01:13 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (Canada vs Denmark)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Group B
Canada(2-0-0-0) vs Denmark(0-0-0-2)

Time:

8:00 PM Eastern 7:00 PM Central 6:00 PM Mountain 5:00 PM Pacific

Location:

Rexall Place, Edmonton, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, rds; should work in US, NHL
*I will try to update this with working streams as much as possible. Send me a PM if you have one so I can tell your message apart from all of the post replies.
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Russia 2 0 0 0 6 6 1
Sweden 1 0 1 0 5 13 7
Slovakia 1 1 0 0 3 4 4
Switzerland 0 1 0 1 1 3 7
Latvia 0 2 0 0 0 5 12
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Canada 2 0 0 0 6 13 1
Finland 1 1 0 0 3 5 9
USA 1 1 0 0 3 13 7
Czech Republic 1 1 0 0 3 7 5
Denmark 0 2 0 0 0 3 18
Rosters
Canada
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Mark Visentin Niagara(OHL)
Scott Wedgewood Plymouth(OHL)
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Nathan Beaulieu Saint John(QMJHL)
Brandon Gormley Moncton(QMJHL)
Dougie Hamilton Niagara(OHL)
Scott Harrington London(OHL)
Ryan Murray Everett(WHL) 2012 Eligible
Jamie Oleksiak Saginaw(OHL)
Mark Pysyk Edmonton(WHL)
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Michael Bournival Shawinigan(QMJHL)
Brett Connolly Tampa Bay(NHL)
Brendan Gallagher Vancouver(WHL)
Freddie Hamilton Niagara(OHL)
Quinton Howden Moose Jaw(WHL)
Jonathan Huberdeau Saint John (QMJHL)
Boone Jenner Oshawa(OHL)
Tanner Pearson Barrie(OHL) 2012 Eligible
Mark Scheifele Barrie(OHL)
Jaden Schwartz Colorado College (WCHA)
Devante Smith-Pelly Anaheim (NHL)
Mark Stone Brandon (WHL)
Ryan Strome Niagara (OHL)
Denmark
Goaltenders
Name BDay Home Team Draft Status
Sebastian Feuk Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Dennis Jensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Christian Larsen Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Jannik Christensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Tobias Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Emil Kristensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Patrick Madsen Herning Eagles 2012 Eligible
Mark Muller Larsen Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Martin Rahbek Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Thode Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Mathias Bau Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Rasmus Bjerrum Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Patrick Bjorkstrand Herning Blue Fox 2013 Eligible
Mads Eller Frolunda Gothenburg 2013 Eligible
Nicklas Jensen Oshawa Generals,OHL
Nicki Kisum Copenhagen Hockey 2012 Eligible
Joachim Linnet Herning Blue Fox 2012 Eligible
Nicolai Meyer Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Schultz Cedar Rapids RoughRiders,USHL 2012 Eligible
Thomas Sondergaard Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Thomas Spelling HerningBlue Fox 2012 Eligible

Stat Leaders

Stat Denmark Canada
G Mathias Bau-Hansenl 2 Mark Stone 4
A Patrick Bjorkstrand 3 Jonathan Huberdeau 5
PTS Patrick Bjorkstrand 3 Jonathan Huberdeau 6
PIM Nicolai Meyer 12 Nathan Beaulieu 14
SOG Nicklas Jensen 6 Mark Stone 11
+/- Mathias Bau-Hansen 0 Jonathan Huberdeau +5

Goalie Breakdown

Player Team Win Loss GAA SO SV% SA
S. Feuk 0 2 9.30 0 .803 71
M.Visentin 1 0 1.00 0 .960 25
S.Wedgewood 0 0 0.00 0 1.000 26
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
Canada
Coach Don Hay and Head Scout Kevin Prendergast didn’t have as many easy choices to make this year as they may have had in past years, as this year’s camp was about as wide open as you’re ever going to see in a Canadian selection camp. If you look at the roster, you could say that only about five players were locks to make this team. Using the 22-man roster we have now, that means that there were 17 spots up for grabs. For a Canadian national hockey team, that is an extremely high amount of open slots. Just to show how wide open it was, Coach Hay said afterwards that Tanner Pearson – the Ontario Hockey League’s points leader by a mile – was one of the last players to make the team. Before this season, most people had never even heard of Tanner Pearson. When a Canadian hockey fan thought of the Barrie Colts, they immediately thought of fellow Team Canada forward Mark Scheifele, and that was it. There would have been no mention of Pearson, not even a thought. Well, that’s all changed pretty quickly hasn’t it? Some analysts are saying that Canada could be considered an underdog in this years tournament in Alberta, on home ice. The Americans may have the more “visually appealing” roster, so that must make them the favourite, right? Oh, if only life were that simple.
Denmark
Denmark enters the 2012 IIHF WJHC having earned a spot in the main tournament after winning the Division 1 Tournament last year in Slovenia, going 4-0-0-1. Denmark’s Nicolai Meyer, the top scorer at the tournament with 12 points in 5 games, is expected to play in Edmonton. Currently Denmark sits 13th in the world in mens ice hockey. The main goal of this tournament is to avoid relegation and play again next year with the likes of Canada, Russia and the United States

Thread Notes:

  • Discuss whatever you wish. You can trash talk, but keep it civil.
  • Turning comment sort to 'new' will help you see the newest posts.
  • Try Chrome Refresh or Firefox's ReloadEvery to auto-refresh this tab.
  • Feel free to msg me with any errors or suggestions for future threads. ***
submitted by seKer82 to hockey [link] [comments]


2011.12.28 22:18 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (Switzerland vs Sweden)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Pool A
Switzerland(0-0-0-1) vs Sweden(1-0-0-0)

Time:

5:30 PM Eastern 4:30 PM Central 3:30 PM Mountain 2:30 PM Pacific

Location:

Scotiabank Saddledome, Calgary, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:Stream: Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, rds; should work in US
*I will try to update this with working streams as much as possible. Send me a PM if you have one so I can tell your message apart from all of the post replies.
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Switzerland 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
Sweden 1 0 0 0 3 9 4
Latvia 0 1 0 0 0 4 9
Russia 1 0 0 0 3 3 0
Slovakia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Czech Republic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Canada 1 0 0 0 3 8 1
Denmark 0 1 0 0 0 3 11
Finland 0 1 0 0 0 1 8
USA 1 0 0 0 3 11 3
Rosters
Switzerland
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Luca Boltshauser Farjestad Karlstad 2012 Eligible
Lukas Meili GCK Lions Zurich 2012 Eligible
Tim Wolf GCK Lions Zurich 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Eliot Antonietti Geneve-Servette 2012 Eligible
Phil Baltisberger GCK Lions Zurich 2014 Eligible
Cedric Hachler Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Dean Kukan Lulea Hockey 2012 Eligible
Christian Marti Kloten Flyers 2012 Eligible
Kewin Orellana SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Dave Sutter Seattle Thunderbirds,WHL 2012 Eligible
Dario Trutmann Plymouth Whalers,OHL 2012 Eligible
Mike Vermeille Geneve-Servette 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Reto Amstutz SC Bern
Sven Andrighetto Rouyn-Noranda Huskies,QMJHL 2012 Eligible
Sven Bartschi Portland Winterhawks,WHL
Alessio Bertaggia Brandon Wheat Kings,WHL 2012 Eligible
Christoph Bertschy SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Daniele Grassi HC Ambri-Piotta 2012 Eligible
Gaetan Haas EHC Biel 2012 Eligible
Gregory Hofmann HC Ambri-Piotta
Lino Martschini Petersborough Petes,OHL 2012 Eligible
Devin Muller Salmon Arm SilverBacks,BCHL 2012 Eligible
Alban Rexha SCL Tigers 2012 Eligible
Tanner Richard Guelph Storm,OHL 2012 Eligible
Cedric Schneuwly EV Zug 2012 Eligible
Dario Simion HC Lugano 2012 Eligible
Joel Vermin SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Samuel Walser Kloten Flyers 2012 Eligible
Sweden
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Anton Forsberg Modo
Johan Gustafsson Lulea HF
Johan Mattsson Sudbury Wolves,OHL
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Mattias Backman Linkoping
Jonas Brodin Farjestad
Fredrik Claesson Djurgarden
Petter Granberg Skelleftea
Oscar Klefbom Farjestad
John Klingberg Jokerit
Patrik Nemeth AIK
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Jeremy Boyce-Rotevall Timra 2012 Eligible
Sebastian Collberg Frolunda 2012 Eligible
Filip Forsberg Leksand 2012 Eligible
Max Friberg Timra
William Karlsson Vasteras
Johan Larsson Brynas
Joakim Nordstrom AIK
Rickard Rakell Plymouth Whalers, OHL
Victor Rask Calgary Hitman, WHL
Ludvig Rensfelt Sarnia Sting, OHL
Johan Sundstrom Frolunda
Erik Thorell Farjestad Undrafted
Mika Zibanejad Djurgarden

Stat Leaders

Stat Switzerland Sweden
G Cedric Hachler 0 Max Friberg 4
A Cedric Hachler 0 Ludvig Rensfeldt 3
PTS Cedric Hachler 0 Max Friberg 4
PIM Mike Vermeille 2 Jonas Brodin 12
SOG Gaetan Haas 5 Max Friberg 5
+/- Phil Baltisberger 0 Max Friberg +2

Goalie Breakdown

Player Team Win Loss GAA SO SV% SA
T.Wolf Switzerland 0 1 3.00 0 .900 30
J.Gustafsson Sweden 1 0 4.00 0 .692 13
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
Switzerland
Switzerland will be playing without the experience of Nino Niederreiter who was ruled out of the tournament due to a concussion. A lot will be expected of Calgary draft pick Sven Bärtschi, who will be seen as the new leader of the young Swiss team . Carolina’s 103rd overall draft pick Gregory Hofmann, currently playing for Swiss team Ambri-Piotta, will also be heavily relied upon for the Swiss due to his current form in the NLA.
Sweden
Sweden consistently sends high-quality hockey teams to all international tournaments they participate in. Whether it’s the Olympics, World Championships, or the World Juniors, they’re teams always push for a medal. This year’s World Junior team may not be as high-profile as teams they’ve had in past years, but there is still a lot of talent, and plenty of goal-scoring ability. There is a legitimate chance that Sweden could surprise everyone, and push their way into a medal game. Team Sweden finished in fourth place last year, after falling to Team USA in the bronze medal game. They’re expected to finish in a similar position once again, as Canada, Russia, and the U.S are the favourites to win the medals. However, like all Swedish teams, there are still players worth keeping an eye on.

Thread Notes:

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  • Try Chrome Refresh or Firefox's ReloadEvery to auto-refresh this tab.
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submitted by seKer82 to hockey [link] [comments]


2011.12.28 01:02 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (Denmark vs Czech Republic)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Pool B
Denmark (0-0-0-1) vs Czech Republic (0-0-0-0)

Time:

8:00 PM Eastern 7:00 PM Central 6:00 PM Mountain 5:00 PM Pacific

Location:

Rexall Place, Edmonton, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:* Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, rds; should work in US
*I will try to update this with working streams
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Switzerland 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
Sweden 1 0 0 0 3 9 4
Latvia 0 1 0 0 0 4 9
Russia 1 0 0 0 3 3 0
Slovakia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Czech Republic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Canada 1 0 0 0 3 8 1
Denmark 0 1 0 0 0 3 11
Finland 0 1 0 0 0 1 8
USA 1 0 0 0 3 11 3
Rosters
Denmark
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Sebastian Feuk Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Dennis Jensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Christian Larsen Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Jannik Christensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Tobias Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Emil Kristensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Patrick Madsen Herning Eagles 2012 Eligible
Mark Muller Larsen Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Martin Rahbek Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Thode Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Mathias Bau Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Rasmus Bjerrum Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Patrick Bjorkstrand Herning Blue Fox 2013 Eligible
Mads Eller Frolunda Gothenburg 2013 Eligible
Nicklas Jensen Oshawa Generals,OHL
Nicki Kisum Copenhagen Hockey 2012 Eligible
Joachim Linnet Herning Blue Fox 2012 Eligible
Nicolai Meyer Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Schultz Cedar Rapids RoughRiders,USHL 2012 Eligible
Thomas Sondergaard Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Thomas Spelling HerningBlue Fox 2012 Eligible
Czech Republic
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Libor Kasik HC Zlin/HC Olomouc 2012 Eligible
Tomas Kral Karpat Oulu 2012 Eligible
Petr Mrazek Ottawa 67's,OHL
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Marek Hrbas Kamloops Blazers, WHL 2012 Eligible
Daniel Krejci Slavia Prague 2012 Eligible
Bohumil Jank Lev Poprad 2012 Eligible
Vojtech Mozik BK Mlada Boleslav 2012 Eligible
David Musil Vancouver Giants, WHL
Jiri Riha HC Bili Tygri Liberec 2012 Eligible
Petr Zamorsky HC Zlin 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Jakub Culek Rimouski Oceanic.QMJHL
Tomas Faksa Kitchener Rangers,OHL 2012 Eligible
Tomas Filippi Baie-Comeau Drakkar,QMJHL 2012 Eligible
Tomas Hertl Slavia Prague 2012 Eligible
Petr Holik HC Zlin 2012 Eligible
Tomas Hyka Gatineau Olympiques,QMJHL 2012 Eligible
Dmitrij Jaskin Slavia Prague
Tomas Nosek HC CSOB Pojistovna Pardubice 2012 Eligible
Lukas Sedlak Chicoutimi Sagueneens,QMJHL
Jiri Sekac Lev Poprad, KHL 2012 Eligible
Petr Straka Rimouski Oceanic,QMJHL
Dominik Uher Spokane Chiefs,WHL
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
Denmark
Denmark enters the 2012 IIHF WJHC having earned a spot in the main tournament after winning the Division 1 Tournament last year in Slovenia, going 4-0-0-1. Denmark’s Nicolai Meyer, the top scorer at the tournament with 12 points in 5 games, is expected to play in Edmonton. Currently Denmark sits 13th in the world in mens ice hockey. The main goal of this tournament is to avoid relegation and play again next year with the likes of Canada, Russia and the United States.
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic drew the unlucky hand of being placed in a group that includes the hosts Team Canada, powerhouse and my tournament favourite the United States and a darkhorse Finnish team. Since claiming back to back gold medals at the 2000 and 2001 tournaments, the team’s best finish has been a bronze medal in 2005. That bronze medal was largely due to the play of goaltender and future St. Louis Blues first round selection Marek Schwarz. This Czech team will look to reshape its identity as a defence-oriented group, and will look to grind games out and wear down the opposition. Strong play from goalies Mrazek and Kasik is needed to avoid relegation, which is an ominous possibility. Similar to Denmark, the real tournament for the Czech team begins in Calgary for the right to remain in the main group. With the lack of talent this year, I don’t think the team will survive relegation.

Tournament Stat Leaders

Stat Team Leader
G 4 Max Frisberg
A 4 Jonathan Huberdeau
PTS 5 Jonathan Huberdeau
+/- +4 Jonathan Huberdeau
SOG 6 Mark Stone
PIM 12 Jonas Brodin
NHL / IIHF Rules Comparison

Thread Notes:

  • Discuss whatever you wish. You can trash talk, but keep it civil.
  • Turning comment sort to 'new' will help you see the newest posts.
  • Try Chrome Refresh or Firefox's ReloadEvery to auto-refresh this tab.
  • Feel free to msg me with any errors or suggestions for future threads. ***
Special thanks to Majupra for adding the IIHF team icons to the sub-reddit.
submitted by seKer82 to hockey [link] [comments]


2011.12.27 02:47 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (Russia vs Switzerland)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Pool A
Russia (0-0-0) vs Switzerland (0-0-0)

Time:

10:00 PM Eastern 9:00 PM Central 8:00 PM Mountain 7:00 PM Pacific

Location:

Scotiabank Saddledome, Calgary, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, rds; should work in US
*I will try to update this with working streams as much as possible. Send me a PM if you have one so I can tell your message apart from all of the post replies.
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A*
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Switzerland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sweden 1 0 0 0 0 9 4
Latvia 0 1 0 0 0 4 9
Russia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Slovakia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Czech Republic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Canada 1 0 0 0 3 8 1
Denmark 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Finland 0 1 0 0 0 1 8
USA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rosters
Russia
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Sergei Kostenko Metallurg Novokuznetsk
Andrei Makarov Saskatoon Blades(WHL)
Andrei Vasilevski Tolpar,Ufa
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Viktor Antipin Metallurg Magnitogorsk 2012 Eligible
Zakhar Arzamastsev Metallurg Novokuznetsk 2012 Eligible
Ildar Isangulov Salavat Yulayev Ufa 2012 Eligible
Nikita Nesterov Traktor Chelyabinsk
Igor Ozhiganov CSKA Moscow 2012 Eligible
Artyom Sergeyev Val d'Or Foreurs (QMJHL) 2012 Eligible
Grigori Zheldakov Spartak Moscow 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Danil Apalkov Metallurg Magnitogorsk 2012 Eligible
Sergei Barbashov CSKA Moscow 2012 Eligible
Mikhail Grigorenko Quebec Remparts(QMJHL) 2012 Eligible
Nikita Gusev CSKA Moscow 2012 Eligible
Alexander Khokhlachev Windsor Spitfires(OHL)
Yaroslav Kosov Metallurg Magnitogorsk
Nikita Kucherov CSKA Moscow
Pavel Kulikov Neftekhimik Nizhnekamsk 2012 Eligible
Yevgeni Kuznetsov Traktor Chelyabinsk
Vladislav Namestnikov London Knights(OHL) Undrafted
Ivan Telegin Barrie Colts(OHL)
Nail Yakupov Sarnia Sting(OHL) 2012 Eligible
Ignat Zemchenko Severstal Cherepovets 2012 Eligible
Switzerland
Goaltenders
Name BDay Home Team Draft Status
Luca Boltshauser Farjestad Karlstad 2012 Eligible
Lukas Meili GCK Lions Zurich 2012 Eligible
Tim Wolf GCK Lions Zurich 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Eliot Antonietti Geneve-Servette 2012 Eligible
Phil Baltisberger GCK Lions Zurich 2014 Eligible
Cedric Hachler Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Dean Kukan Lulea Hockey 2012 Eligible
Christian Marti Kloten Flyers 2012 Eligible
Kewin Orellana SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Dave Sutter Seattle Thunderbirds,WHL 2012 Eligible
Dario Trutmann Plymouth Whalers,OHL 2012 Eligible
Mike Vermeille Geneve-Servette 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Reto Amstutz SC Bern
Sven Andrighetto Rouyn-Noranda Huskies,QMJHL 2012 Eligible
Sven Bartschi Portland Winterhawks,WHL
Alessio Bertaggia Brandon Wheat Kings,WHL 2012 Eligible
Christoph Bertschy SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Daniele Grassi HC Ambri-Piotta 2012 Eligible
Gaetan Haas EHC Biel 2012 Eligible
Gregory Hofmann HC Ambri-Piotta
Lino Martschini Petersborough Petes,OHL 2012 Eligible
Devin Muller Salmon Arm SilverBacks,BCHL 2012 Eligible
Alban Rexha SCL Tigers 2012 Eligible
Tanner Richard Guelph Storm,OHL 2012 Eligible
Cedric Schneuwly EV Zug 2012 Eligible
Dario Simion HC Lugano 2012 Eligible
Joel Vermin SC Bern 2012 Eligible
Samuel Walser Kloten Flyers 2012 Eligible
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
It’s safe to say the Russians won’t be sneaking up on anyone this year. En route to their surprising gold medal victory a year ago at the World Junior Hockey Championships, team Russia put together three incredible come from behind victories including rallying from three goals down in the third period to defeat Canada in the gold medal game. Their run to glory may have been unexpected but it did prove that the country is once again a world power at the U-20 level, and heading into the 2012 championships they are likely to be considered the pre-tournament favourites.
Switzerland will be playing without the experience of Nino Niederreiter who was ruled out of the tournament due to a concussion. A lot will be expected of Calgary draft pick Sven Bärtschi, who will be seen as the new leader of the young Swiss team . Carolina’s 103rd overall draft pick Gregory Hofmann, currently playing for Swiss team Ambri-Piotta, will also be heavily relied upon for the Swiss due to his current form in the NLA.
NHL / IIHF Rules Comparison

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2011.12.27 01:22 seKer82 Game Thread: IIHF World Junior Championship Group Stage (USA vs Denmark)

2011 IIHF World Junior Hockey Championship

Group Stage

Pool A
USA (0-0-0) vsDenmark (0-0-0)

Time:

8:00 PM Eastern 7:00 PM Central 6:00 PM Mountain 5:00 PM Pacific

Location:

Rexall Place, Edmonton, Alberta

Watch:

TV: Canada: TSN, TSN2, RDS
United States: NHL Network
Pan-European: Eurosport2
Czech Republic: Ceske Televize
Finland: MTV3
Russia: NTV Plus
Sweden: SVT, Viasat
Switzerland: SRG (highlights only)
Stream:* TSN.ca, FASTHockey.com, wiziwig.tv, FirstRowSports, IsHunger.tv, rds; should work in US, NHL
*I will try to update this with working streams as much as possible. Send me a PM if you have one so I can tell your message apart from all of the post replies.
/Hockey Chat

Standings:

Group A*
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Switzerland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sweden 1 0 0 0 0 9 4
Latvia 0 1 0 0 0 4 9
Russia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Slovakia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Group B
Team W L OTW OTL PTS GF GA
Czech Republic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Canada 1 0 0 0 3 8 1
Denmark 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Finland 0 1 0 0 0 1 8
USA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rosters
USA
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Jack Campbell Soo Greyhounds,OHL
John Gibson Kitchener Rangers,OHL
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Adam Clendening Boston University,HEA
Derek Forbort University of North Dakota,WCHA
Kevin Gravel St. Cloud State University,WCHA
Stephen Johns University of Notre Dame,CCHA
Jon Merrill University of Michigan,CCHA
Jarred Tinordi London Knights,OHL
Jake Trouba U.S. NTDP U-18,USHL 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Josh Archibald University of Nebraska Omaha,WCHA
Bill Arnold Boston College,HEA
Nick Bjugstad University of Minnesota,WCHA
Connor Brickley University of Vermont,HEA
Charlie Coyle Boston University,HEA
Austin Czarnik Miami University,CCHA 2012 Eligible
Emerson Etem Medicine Hat Tigers,WHL
J.T. Miller Plymouth Whalers,OHL
Kyle Rau University of Minnesota,WCHA
Brandon Saad Saginaw Spirit,OHL
T.J. Tynan University of Notre Dame,CCHA
Austin Watson Peterborough Petes,OHL
Jason Zucker University of Denver,WCHA
Denmark
Goaltenders
Name Team Draft Status
Sebastian Feuk Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Dennis Jensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Christian Larsen Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Defence
Name Team Draft Status
Jannik Christensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Tobias Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Emil Kristensen EfB Esbjerg 2012 Eligible
Patrick Madsen Herning Eagles 2012 Eligible
Mark Muller Larsen Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Martin Rahbek Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Thode Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Forwards
Name Team Draft Status
Mathias Bau Hansen Rodovre Mighty Bulls 2012 Eligible
Rasmus Bjerrum Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Patrick Bjorkstrand Herning Blue Fox 2013 Eligible
Mads Eller Frolunda Gothenburg 2013 Eligible
Nicklas Jensen Oshawa Generals,OHL
Nicki Kisum Copenhagen Hockey 2012 Eligible
Joachim Linnet Herning Blue Fox 2012 Eligible
Nicolai Meyer Malmo Redhawks 2012 Eligible
Jonas Sass Herlev Eagles 2012 Eligible
Anders Schultz Cedar Rapids RoughRiders,USHL 2012 Eligible
Thomas Sondergaard Frederikshavn Whitehawks 2012 Eligible
Thomas Spelling HerningBlue Fox 2012 Eligible

Tournament players to watch;[The Hockey News]

10. Mark Visentin, G, Canada (Phoenix Coyotes) Canada has struggled in the crease area at recent WJC tournaments, including Visentin's performance late in last year's event. He'll be under a lot of pressure to bounce back this time around.
9. Aleksander Barkov, C, Finland (2013 draft eligible) He's only 16, and won't be eligible for the NHL draft until 2013, but Barkov is the real deal. There's a good chance he plays on Finland's third line (at least), so he may become a factor here.
8. Mikhail Grigorenko, C, Russia (2012 draft eligible) Arguably the most dynamic player in the QMJHL this season, Grigorenko will look to improve his '12 draft stock (or at least maintain it). Not everyone is sold on his upside, so he needs to stand out.
7. Emerson Etem, RW, USA (Anaheim Ducks) There is plenty of scoring potential on Team USA this time around, but the spotlight could be squarely on WHL second-leading scorer Etem. The California speedster has 30 goals in 34 games this year.
6. Jaden Schwartz, LW, Canada (St. Louis Blues) Seeking redemption here, Schwartz will look for better luck after fracturing his ankle in the tournament a year ago. The speedy sophomore has 18 points in 13 games at Colorado College this season.
5. Evgeny Kuznetsov, LW/RW, Russia (Washington Capitals) Expected to join the Capitals next season, Kuznetsov is among the KHL scoring leaders in 2011-12 for Traktor Chelyabinsk. A strong showing here will convince the Caps he doesn't need AHL seasoning.
4. Jack Campbell, G, USA (Dallas Stars) A bit like Visentin, Campbell will have a big spotlight on him in this tourney. He has been a clutch performer for Team USA but he may look over his shoulder now with John Gibson challenging him.
3. Mika Zibanejad, C, Sweden (Ottawa Senators) Ottawa's second-line center of the near future (likely in 2012-13) had a nine-game NHL trial earlier this season, so he should be ready to put on quite a display for Swedish fans and Sens scouts alike here.
2. Nail Yakupov, RW, Russia (2012 draft eligible) Is Yakupov the best player outside the NHL today? Is he the consensus No. 1 pick in 2012? These questions may be answered in this year's WJC. He has the ability to take over this entire tournament.
1. Mikael Granlund, C/W, Finland (Minnesota Wild) If Yakupov isn't the best non-NHLer in the world today, Granlund just might be. He's 19, so he's been through this before. A good bet to join the Wild next season, Granlund could be a huge factor here.
Team Breakdowns The Hockey Writers
The Americans boast a combination of unparalleled goaltending (Campbell and Gibson) plus an explosive offense. This is a team with the skill to compete against any team, be it Canada or Russia. Emerson Etem has the ability to take over games with his skill. Their defence will get the job done, and expect Adam Clendening to be activated and given the liberty to move the puck. Forbert and Tinordi have proven themselves and will be able to shut down the likes of Mikael Granlund and Jonathan Huberdeau. This is the team to beat right now.
Denmark enters the 2012 IIHF WJHC having earned a spot in the main tournament after winning the Division 1 Tournament last year in Slovenia, going 4-0-0-1. Denmark’s Nicolai Meyer, the top scorer at the tournament with 12 points in 5 games, is expected to play in Edmonton. Currently Denmark sits 13th in the world in mens ice hockey. The main goal of this tournament is to avoid relegation and play again next year with the likes of Canada, Russia and the United States
NHL / IIHF Rules Comparison

Thread Notes:

  • Discuss whatever you wish. You can trash talk, but keep it civil.
  • Turning comment sort to 'new' will help you see the newest posts.
  • Try Chrome Refresh or Firefox's ReloadEvery to auto-refresh this tab.
  • Feel free to msg me with any errors or suggestions for future threads. ***
submitted by seKer82 to hockey [link] [comments]


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